Conclusions: The Next Generation of African Children
More than a decade and a half ago, Donal Cruise-O’Brien (1996) declared African children and youth to be “a lost generation.” His concern was echoed by later scholarship in acknowledgment of the enormous socioeconomic and political forces still surrounding the lives of young people in Africa (Abbink and Van Kessel 2005; Honwana and De Boeck 2005), including the persistent violence experienced during the turbulent post-Cold War period. “The notorious genocide and ethnic cleansing in Rwanda and to some extent Burundi, civil war in Liberia, Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Côte D’Ivoire and Somalia, minority uprisings in Nigeria, and separatist agitation in Cameroon and Senegal” (Osaghae and Robinson 2005, 1) are some examples of conflicts that often affected children worst. One must, however, be cautious about situating the whole African continent in one single descriptive trajectory. While in some parts of Africa violence and hardship have become, to an extent, normalized, many others are currently undergoing enormous sociopolitical transformations leading towards the (re)establishment of peace and prosperity. Many important achievements have marked the tumultuous first decade of the new century. The year 2010 saw 17 African countries celebrate 50 years of independence, while a new state, the Republic of South Sudan, was born on July 9, 2011, bringing the total number of African nations to 54.
KeywordsGross Domestic Product African Child African Government Violent Conflict Universal Basic Education
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Abagi, Okwach. 2005. “The Role of the School in Africa in the Twenty-First Century: Coping with Forces of Change”. In Issues in African Education: Sociological Perspectives, edited by Ali A. Abdi and Ailie Cleghorn, 297–315. New York and Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Abbink, Jon and Ineke Van Kessel, eds. 2005. Vanguard or Vandals: Youth, Politics and Conflict in Africa. Leiden and Boston: Brill.Google Scholar
- Africa Recovery United Nations. “Invest in Us, African Children Tell World Leaders”. African Recovery New Releases (May 2002). Accessed November 3, 2011. http://www.un.org/ecosocdev/geninfo/afrec/newrels/children.htm.
- African Child Policy Forum (ACPF). 2011. The African Report on Child Wellbeing 2011: Budgeting for Children. Addis Ababa: ACPF.Google Scholar
- African Child Policy Forum (ACPF). 2009. “Child Rights at the Crossroads”. Proceedings of the Global Conference on Research and Child Rights. November 30–December 2, 2009. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: 25–26.Google Scholar
- Anderson, Allison and Jennifer Hoffman. 2010. “Minimum Standards, Maximum Results”. In Even in Chaos: Education in Times of Emergency, edited by Kevin M. Cahill, 160–177. New York: Fordham University Press and the Center for International Humanitarian Cooperation.Google Scholar
- Bengtsson, Stephanie E.L. 2011. “Fragile States, Fragile Concepts: A Critical Reflection on the Terminology of Fragility in the Field of Education in Emergencies”. In Education, Conflict and Development, edited by Julia Colson, 33–58. Oxford: Symposium Books, Ltd.Google Scholar
- Christiansen, Catrine, Mats Utas, and Henrik E. Vigh. 2006. “Introduction”. In Navigating Youth, Generating Adulthood: Social Becoming in an African Context, edited by Catrine Christiansen, Mats Utas and Henrik E. Vigh. Stokholm: Nordiska Afrikaninstitutet.Google Scholar
- Cruise O’Brien, B. Donal. 1996. “A Lost Generation? Youth Identity and State Decay in West Africa”. In Postcolonial Identities in Africa, edited by Richard Werbner and Terence Ranger. London and New Jersey: Zed Books Ltd.Google Scholar
- Collier, Paul, Lani Elliott, Hâvard Hegre, Anke Hoeffler, Marta Reynal-Querol and Nicholas Sambanis. 2003. Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy. New York: World Bank and Oxford University Press. Education for All (EFA).Google Scholar
- 2010. “Reaching the Marginalized”. EFA Global Monitoring Report Teach. Paris: UNESCO and Oxford: Oxford University Press. Accessed November 3, 2011. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001866/186606e.pdf.
- Comaroff, Jean and John Comaroff. 2005. “Reflections on Youth: From the Past to the Postcolony”. In Makers and Breakers: Children and Youth in Postcolonial Africa, edited by Alcinda Honwana and Filip De Boeck, 19–30. Trenton. NJ: Africa World Press.Google Scholar
- Dei, George J. Sefa. 2000. “African Development: The Relevance and Implications of “Indigenousness”. In Indigenous Knowledges in Global Contexts: Multiple Readings of OurGoogle Scholar
- World, edited by G. Dei, B. Hall and D.G. Rosenberg, 70–86. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
- Dei, George J. Sefa, Alireza Asgharzadeh, Sharon Eblaghie Bahador, and Shahjahan Riyad Ahmed. 2006. Schooling and Difference in Africa: Democratic Challenges in a Contemporary Context. Toronto, Buffalo and London: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
- Dei, George J. Sefa, and Alireza Asgharzadeh. 2005. “Narratives from Ghana: Exploring Issues of Difference and Diversity in Education”. In Issues in African Education: Sociological Perspectives, edited by Ali A. Abdi and Ailie Cleghorn, 220–238. New York and Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Gove and Cvlich. 2010. Early Reading: Igniting Education for All. A Report by the Early Grade Learning Community of Practice. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute.Google Scholar
- Honwana, Alcinda and Filip De Boeck, eds. 2005. Maker and Breakers: Children and Youth in Postcolonial Africa. Dakar: CODESRIA.Google Scholar
- Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE). 2005. Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction. Paris: INEE.Google Scholar
- Martone, Gerald. 2010. “An Unexpected Lifeline”. In Even in Chaos: Education in Times of Emergency, edited by Kevin M. Cahill, 89–108. New York: Fordham University Press and the Center for International Humanitarian Cooperation.Google Scholar
- Makgoba, Malegapuru William. 1999. African Renaissance: The New Struggle. Cape Town: Mafube & Tafelberg.Google Scholar
- Mugawe, David. 2011. “Foreword”. In The African Report on Child Wellbeing 2011: Budgeting for Children, African Child Policy Forum (ACPF), xv. Addis Ababa: ACPF.Google Scholar
- Nicolai, S and Triplehorn, C. 2003. “The Role of Education in Protecting Children in Conflict”. Humanitarian Practice Network. HPN Paper 42. London Overseas Development Institute.Google Scholar
- O’Malley, Brendan. 2010. “Education under Attack: A Global Study on Targeted Political and Military Violence against Education Staff, Students, Teachers, Union and Government Officials, Aid Workers and Institutions”. Paris: UNESCO. Accessed October 15, 2011. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001868/186809e.pdf.
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2010. “African EconomicGoogle Scholar
- Outlook 2010”. Development Centre of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. African Development Bank 2010. Accessed November 2, 2011. http://www.un.org/esa/dsd/resources/res_pdfs/publications/sdt_afri/AEO2010_ part1_p76.pdf.
- Osaghae, Eghosa and Gillian Robinson. 2005. “Introduction”. In Researching Conflict in Africa: Insights and Experiences, edited by Elizabeth Porter, Gillian Robinson, Marie Smyth, Albrecht Schnabel and Eghosa Osaghae, 1–5. New York and Paris: United Nations University Press.Google Scholar
- Paulson, Julia. 2011. “Education, Conflict and Development. In Education, Conflict and Development, edited by Julia Colson, 7–14. Oxford: Symposium Books, Ltd.Google Scholar
- Peterson, Stephen. 2010. Rethinking the Millennium Development Goals for Africa. Addis Ababa: The African Child Policy Forum (ACPF).Google Scholar
- Pingel, Falk. 2010. “The Power of the Curriculum”. In Even in Chaos: Education in Times of Emergency, edited by Kevin M. Cahill, 109–135. New York: Fordham University Press and the Center for International Humanitarian Cooperation.Google Scholar
- Reich, Simon. 2010. “Establishing Safe Learning Environments”. In Even in Chaos: Education in Times of Emergency, edited by Kevin M. Cahill, 178–189. New York: Fordham University Press and the Center for International Humanitarian Cooperation.Google Scholar
- Save the Children. 2008. “Children in Conflict-Affected Countries Short-Changed in Education Funding”. News Release. Accessed September 15, 2011. http://www.savethechildren.net/alliance/media/newsdesk/2008-06-03.html.
- Schnabel, Albrecht. 2005. “Preventing and Managing Violent Conflict: The Role of the Researcher”. In Researching Conflict in Africa: Insights and Experiences, edited by Elizabeth Porter, Gillian Robinson, Marie Smyth, Albrecht Schnabel and Eghosa Osaghae, 24–43. Tokyo, New York and Paris: United Nations University Press.Google Scholar
- Smith, Alan. 2011. “Education and Peacebuilding: From ‘Conflict-analysis’ to ‘Conflict Transformation’?” FriEnt. Essay Series. (April, 2011). Accessed November 2, 2011. http://FriEnt_Essay_seires_Smith.pdf.Google Scholar
- UNESCO. 2010a. “Reaching the Marginalized. Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2010”. Accessed, November 2, 2011. http://unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/ED/GMR/pdf/gmr2010/gmr2010-ch3/pdf.
- UNESCO. 2010b. “Protecting Education for Attack: A State of the Art Review”. Paris: UNESCO. Accessed September 15, 2011. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001867/1867 32e/pdf.
- UNICEF. 2008. “The State of African Children 2008: Child Survival”. UNICEF. Accessed September 15, 2011. http://www.unicef.org.
- United Nations General Assembly. 2010. “The Right to Education in Emergency Situations”. A/64/L.58. Accessed October 3, 2011. http://www.ineesite.org/uploads .documents/store/UN_Resolution_Education_in_Emergencies.pdf.
- Winthrop, Rebecca. 2011. “Education in Africa: The Story Isn’t Over”. (May 2011). Washington, DC: Center for Universal Education, Bookings Institution. Accessed June 1, 2011. http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2011/05_africa _Education_winthrop/05_current_history_winthrop.pdf.
- World Bank. 2009. “Education and the World Bank”. Accessed November 7, 2011. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTEDUCATION/0,,menuPK:282391~pagePK:149018~the SitePK:282386,00html.