Was Progressive Education Progressive?
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The story of Helen Heffernan and Corinne Seeds provides a well-documented example of how progressive education was enacted at the local and state levels. Their work was specific to California, but at the same time was typical of the way progressive ideas were implemented across the country. In this chapter I turn from a narrative of their activities to an analysis of their thought. While they did not yet work closely together, their writings provide evidence not only of their own thinking but of the educational vision of liberal progressive educators more generally in the years before the Second World War. The ideas of Seeds and Heffernan reveal the competing and overlapping discourses of freedom and control, equity and unacknowledged privilege, that marked progressive education in these years.
KeywordsStudent Teacher Polar Bear Progressive Education Activity Curriculum Rhythmic Expression
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