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Dare the School Build a New Social Order?

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Part of the Historical Studies in Education book series (HSE)

Abstract

The Depression of the 1930s led many Americans to reconsider the nature of their political, social, and economic institutions. In California, the social and economic crisis of the Depression raised significant challenges for Corinne Seeds and Helen Heffernan, including financial cutbacks, the beginning of attacks from conservatives, and the need to respond to the entry of increasing numbers of impoverished children into the schools.1 As was true throughout the United States, California was deeply affected by the Depression: local economies suffered, tax revenues shrank, and unemployment reached extraordinary levels. But unlike the Midwest or East, California also experienced an influx of migrants from other states seeking work in its rich agricultural counties, a migration documented by such well-known figures as Dorothea Lange, John Steinbeck, and Carey McWilliams. Through Lange’s photographs and the 1940 film “The Grapes of Wrath,” images of white migrant farmworkers became icons of the Depression. At the same time, under the New Deal, California received substantial federal aid; it was the site of large public works projects such as the Golden Gate and Bay Bridges in San Francisco and was the recipient of federally supported programs for the unemployed, farmworkers, and children. This increased federal aid led to an increased federal presence and influence in the state.

Keywords

Social Order Teacher College Rural School Progressive Education Seasonal Worker 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 9.
    Irving Hendrick, “The Impact of the Great Depression on Public School Support in California,” Southern California Quarterly 54 (1972): 177–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 14.
    Helen Heffernan, “A Statement of the Philosophy and the Purposes of the Elementary School,” CJEE 1, no. 3 (February 1933): 109.Google Scholar
  3. 15.
    Corinne Seeds, “An Interpretation of the Integrated Program in the Elementary School,” CJEE 3, no. 2 (November 1934): 89–98.Google Scholar
  4. 16.
    Laverna Lossing, “Creative Music,” CJEE 3, no. 4 (May 1935): 207–12.Google Scholar
  5. 17.
    Elizabeth Bruene, “The Activity Procedure and the Fundamentals,” CJEE 4, no. 2 (November 1935): 104–8.Google Scholar
  6. 18.
    Corinne Seeds, “The School and Its Tasks,” CJEE 5, no. 4 (May 1937): 198–210; Corinne Seeds, “Next Steps in the Preparation of Teachers,” CJEE 7, no. 2 (November 1938): 119–28.Google Scholar
  7. 33.
    Murray Lee and Dorris May Lee, “Keeping Informed,” CJEE 3, no. 3 (February 1935): 242.Google Scholar
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    Paula Fass, “Without Design: Education Policy in the New Deal,” American Journal of Education 91, no. 1 (November 1982): 42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Helen Heffernan, “Health Problems in Rural Schools,” CJEE 3, no. 3 (February 1935): 152.Google Scholar
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    Ruth Edmands, “The New Educational Order,” CJEE 3, no. 3 (February 1935): 153–57.Google Scholar
  12. 55.
    See, for example, Corinne Seeds, “Democratic Thinking and Living in the Classroom,” Educational Method 14, no. 2 (November 1934): 57.Google Scholar
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    Christine K. Erikson, “‘I Have Not Had One Fact Disproven’: Elizabeth Dilling’s Crusade against Communism in the 1930s,” Journal of American Studies 36, no. 3 (2002): 473–89. Christine K. Erikson, “‘We Want No Teachers Who Say There are Two Sides to Every Question: Conservative Women and Education in the 1930s,” History of Education Quarterly 46, no. 4 (Winter 2006): 487–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    John Hockett, “Facing Realities in Elementary School Social Studies,” CJEE 4, no. 3 (February 1937): 136–47; John Hockett “The Evaluation of the Elementary School Program,” CJEE 6, no. 4 (May 1938): 210–17.Google Scholar

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© Kathleen Weiler 2011

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