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How to Teach the California Child

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Part of the Historical Studies in Education book series (HSE)

Abstract

Despite continuing tension between the United States and the Soviet Union, the late 1950s saw a shift away from the repressive climate of the depths of the Cold War. As the Red Scare receded and the civil rights movement gained momentum, an alternative social narrative of what democracy could mean in the United States began to emerge. After the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision, both black freedom struggles and white southern racist resistance reached American living rooms through the new medium of television. Images such as those of angry white mobs blocking the entry of nine black teenagers into a previously all-white high school in Little Rock, Arkansas, shocked many white Americans. The more liberal climate began to affect electoral politics. In 1958, California Democrat Pat Brown defeated the conservative Republican William Knowland in the race for governor; in that election Democrats captured both houses of the legislature and all state executive offices except for secretary of state, marking the end of a century of Republican dominance. And in 1960, Democrat John F. Kennedy was elected president of the United States in a narrow victory over Richard Nixon.

Keywords

Progressive Education Grade Teacher Teacher Guide Woman Educator State Superintendent 
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Notes

  1. 1.
    Augustin Rudd, Bending the Twig (Sons of the American Revolution, 1957).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Senate Investigating Committee on Education, Sixteenth Report: Curriculum Changes (Sacramento: State Printing Office, 1958): 37.Google Scholar
  3. 19.
    Mortimer Smith, “How to Teach the California Child: Notes from Never Never Land,” Atlantic Monthly 202 (September 1958): 33.Google Scholar
  4. 22.
    Arthur Corey, “California Schools Do Educate: A Reaffirmation,” Atlantic Monthly 202 (December, 1958): 63–66.Google Scholar
  5. 31.
    Helen Heffernan, “Evaluation—More than Testing,” NEA Journal 47 (1958): 227–29.Google Scholar
  6. 34.
    Roy Simpson, “Maintaining a Balanced Educational Program,” California Schools 31, no. 2 (February, 1960): 61. The public criticisms of the schools by Rickover and others led to the appointment of the Citizens Advisory Commission, made up of twenty-seven “distinguished citizens of the state,” by the California legislature. The commission’s final report on October 22, 1960 recommended that California create a system of statewide examinations and require that two-thirds of all instruction in elementary school be in “the three R’s.” See Mortimer Smith, “California’s Latest Educational Committee,” Tax Digest 37 (May 1959): 106, 115; Don Robinson, “The Conservative Revolution in California Education,” Phi Delta Kappan 2, no. 3 (December 1960): 95.Google Scholar
  7. 35.
    Helen Heffernan, “The Young Adolescent,” CJEE 28, no. 4 (November 1959): 71. See also Helen Heffernan, “Where Do You Stand on the Issues?” California Journal for Instructional Improvement 3, no. 4 (December 1960): 7; Helen Heffernan, “Pressures to Start Formal Instruction Early?” in Don’t Push Me!, ed. Margaret Rasmussen, 14–18 (Association for Childhood International, 1960).Google Scholar
  8. 50.
    Max Rafferty, “Suffer the Little Children,” Phi Delta Kappan 36 (December 1956): 89–92; Max Rafferty, “A Chronicle of Masks,” Phi Delta Kappan 37 (May 1957): 298–301; Max Rafferty, “The Philistines,” Phi Delta Kappan 38 (November 1957): 42–46; Max Rafferty, “The Cult of the Slob,” Phi Delta Kappan 40 (November 1958): 56–59; Max Rafferty, “Open Season,” Phi Delta Kappan 41 (November 1959): 49–52; Max Rafferty, “Children of Uranus,” Phi Delta Kappan 42 (October 1960): 20–23; Max Rafferty, “The Seven Grim Fairy Tales,” Phi Delta Kappan 42 (December 1960): 114–20.Google Scholar
  9. 56.
    Herbert Gwinn, “The Flag, the Pledge, and You,” California Schools 32, no. 9 (October 1961): 7.Google Scholar
  10. 57.
    Roy Simpson, “Special Report to the State Board of Education,” California Schools 32, no. 1 (January 1962): 1.Google Scholar
  11. 81.
    Wilson Riles, “School Boards and ‘de facto’ Segregation,” California Education 1, no. 3 (November 1963): 7; See also Wilson Riles, “Problems of de facto Segregation,” California Education 1, no. 1 (September 1963): 39.Google Scholar
  12. 89.
    Helen Heffernan, “Questions Parents Ask,” Grade Teacher 81, no. 2 (September 1963): 23.Google Scholar
  13. 91.
    Max Rafferty, “Education in Depth,” California Education 2, no. 4 (January 1965): 1.Google Scholar
  14. 92.
    Helen Heffernan, “Are the Schools Teaching Phonics?” Grade Teacher 81, no. 3 (October 1963): 60, 124.Google Scholar
  15. 93.
    Helen Heffernan, “Questions Parents Ask: Should Elementary School Children Have Homework?” Grade Teacher 81, no. 3 (October 1963): 149.Google Scholar
  16. 95.
    Helen Heffernan, “Questions Parents Ask: What is the Effect of Criticism on Teachers?” Grade Teacher 81, 4 (December 1963): 82.Google Scholar
  17. 98.
    Helen Heffernan, “Will the Anti-Poverty Bill Affect Me?” Grade Teacher 82, no. 6 (February 1965): 59.Google Scholar

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© Kathleen Weiler 2011

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