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While virtually all South American countries launched liberalizing and public-private initiatives by the first half of the 1990s, movements of opposition challenged them and shaped outcomes in a number of countries. Impact varied in both instances. Colombia and Peru experienced sustained liberalization and, eventually, considerable state-market collaboration. In contrast, anti-liberalization movements in Bolivia and Ecuador contributed to the rise of regimes—sometimes characterized as post-neoliberal—that significantly altered the course of reform. After discussing these two sets of Andean cases, this chapter closes with a review of Uruguay and Paraguay.
KeywordsPrivate Sector Social Movement External Shock Asian Financial Crisis Fiscal Deficit
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