My observation of various types of behavior and attitudes has led me to conclude that the pursuit and expression of every archetypal style and interest is characterized by either a soulful or spirited quality of temperament. I therefore make a distinction between the archetype of Pneuma/Spirit as a motivational drive and ’spirit’ as a temperamental characteristic. The use of the same archetype in two different ways is possible because every archetype has multiple manifestations, each one with its own specific attributes. For instance, the great mother archetype includes the Virgin Mary, the sky goddess, the earth mother and Kali. It can also be represented by such impersonal objects as the moon, the ocean, a tree or a cave. Although the great mother archetype is the source of all these representations, each possesses its unique characteristics, a separate frame of reference and a different meaning. This multifaceted nature of every archetype is also true of the archetype of Spirit. Thus, Spirit can appear as a wise old man, as Mercurius in alchemy, or wind, breath, light or fire. Archetypal-motivational typology relies upon two psychological attributes of this archetype, as a motivational drive and as a temperamental quality.
KeywordsMotivational Drive Earth Mother Temperamental Characteristic Multiple Manifestation Ship Transport
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- 16.James Hillman, Re-Visioning Psychology (New York: Harper& Row, 1975), p. 69.Google Scholar