Kelly Boyd, Manliness and the Boys’ Story Paper in Britain: A Cultural History, 1855–1940 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003)
Jennifer A. Low, Manhood and the Duel: Masculinity in Early Modern Drama and Culture (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003)
Patrick F. McDevitt, May the Best Man Win: Sport, Masculinity, and Nationalism in Great Britain and the Empire, 1880–1935 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004).
Angus McLaren, The Trials of Masculinity: Policing Sexual Boundaries 1870–1930 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997), 2–5.
Karen Volland Waters, The Perfect Gentleman: Masculine Control in Victorian Men’s Fiction, 1810–1901 (New York: Peter Lang, 1997), 5.
David Castronovo, The English Gentleman: Images and Ideals in Literature and Society (New York: Ungar, 1987), 7, 14, 19, 31, 45, 52.
Mrs. Humphry, Manners for Men (London, 1897).
John Tosh, “Gentlemanly Politeness and Manly Simplicity in Victorian England,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 12 (2002): 456.
Penny Corfield, “The Democratic History of the English Gentleman,” History Today 42 (December, 1992): 45.
Pierre Bourdieu, Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste, trans. Richard Nice (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984), 110.
Antonia Taddei, “London Clubs in the Late Nineteenth Century” (presentation, Discussion Papers in Economic and Social History, University of Oxford, April 1999), 16.
There are certainly parallels here to what Paul Deslandes discovered about self-regulation in the elite universities at the time. Paul Deslandes, Oxbridge Men: British Masculinity and the Undergraduate Experience, 1850–1920 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005).
Simon Gunn, in his study of Manchester clubs, found that the increasingly rigid qualifications for membership and strict rules governing acceptable behavior extended beyond London. Simon Gunn, The Public Culture of the Victorian Middle Class: Ritual and Authority and the English Industrial City 1840–1914 (Manchester and London: Manchester University Press, 2000), 95.
Club law was both similar enough that a general guide could be produced, and important enough for such a text to find a market. Maxwell Turner and A. S. Wilson, The haw Relating to Clubs, 5th ed. (London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1935), 121, 17.
G. W. S., “Journalism and Club Morality,” New York Tribune, July 20, 1881, 5.
An Old Fogey, “Clubs and Clubmen.—III. The Eccentric,” Pall Mall Gazette, January 28, 1903, 1.
Fitzroy Gardner, More Reminiscences of an Old Bohemian (London: Hutchinson, 1926), 174–175.
Alfred Ayres, The Mentor. A Little Book for the Guidance of Such Men and Boys as Would Appear to Advantage in the Society of Persons of the Better Sort (New York: D. Appleton, 1902), 176.
William Gregory Dawkins, A Review of Lord Coleridge’s Judgement in the Court of Common Pleas (London: 1879), 8.
William Gregory Dawkins, “More Dishonourable Conduct of Lt.-General Stephenson. Notes on an Appeal to Law against the Travellers’ Club” (London, c. 1879), 15.
Trevor Fisher, Oscar and Bosie: A Fatal Passion (Stroud, Gloucestershire: Stroud, 2002), 109–110.
Oscar Wilde to Robert Ross, February 28, 1895, in The Complete Letters of Oscar Wilde, ed. Rupert Hart-Davis (London: Fourth Estate, 2000), 634.
Public violence among men had seen a marked decrease since the eighteenth century. Dueling and violent fighting, once a way to reaffirm masculinity and social status, gave way to more restrained codes of public behavior. Robert Shoemaker, “Male Honour and the Decline of Public Violence in Eighteenth-Century London,” Social History 26, no. 2 (2001): 190–208.
Charles Biron, Without Prejudice: Impressions of Life and Law (London: Faber and Faber, 1936), 37.
John Bennion Booth, Old Pink ‘Un Days (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1925), 312.
Arthur Leach, Club Cases; with Reference to the Liabilities and Expulsion of Members, with the Labouchere Case, 2nd ed. (London, 1879), 38–42.
Guy Deghy, Noble and Manly: The History of the National Sporting Club Incorporating the Posthumous Papers of the Pelican Club (London: Hutchinson, 1956), 81.
Arthur M. Binstead and Ernest Wells, A Pink ‘Un and a Pelican: Some Random Reminiscences, Sporting or Otherwise (London, 1898), 56–57.
The suggestion by a member at the National Liberal Club that no member could enjoy intoxicating liquors except when lunching or dining was met with ironic support by one author who argued that wine would only force politicians to tell the truth, so it was a good thing to ban the stuff. Mostyn T. Pigott, “In Vino Veritas,” The World, April 29, 1913, 107.
Arthur Sherwell, Life in West London: A Study and a Contrast (London: Methuen, 1901), 127.
George W. E. Russell, An Onlooker’s Note-Book (London: John Murray, 1903), 266–267.
H. M., “A Club Type: The Boozer,” Smart Society, January 25, 1893, 19.
Attempts to imagine temperance in the clubs were transparent, at best. One humorous tale, “Squiff,” tells the light-hearted story of a clubman renowned for his drinking. He left his club so inebriated that he had trouble walking on the sidewalks, and instead of his flat he wandered into a conjuror’s shop. There he had a series of comical encounters with magical items. When wrestling with a bunch of snakes he finally awoke and realised he was safe at home. This ludicrous evening convinces the man to become an abstainer, and he comforts himself by thinking his club friends will have to devise another nickname for him. Fred Carlton, “Squiff” an Episode of London Club Life (London: Messrs. Price & Reynolds, 1907), 1–4.
E. F. Benson, As We Were: A Victorian Peepshow (Toronto: Penguin Books, 2001), 220.
Mark Clapson, A Bit of a Flutter: Popular Gambling and English Society, c. 1823–1961 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992), 19.
Marie Corelli, The Sorrows of Satan; or, the Strange Experience of One Geoffrey Tempest, Millionaire (London, 1895), 112.
For one very clear example in which cheating at cards was used as a shorthand for a villainous character see: Hamilton Aïdé, Introduced to Society, 2 vols. (London, 1884), 1: 215.
Arthur Conan Doyle also employed cheating at cards to characterize one of Professor Moriarty’s accomplices as an irresolute scoundrel. Arthur Conan Doyle, “The Adventure of the Empty House,” in The Complete Original Illustrated Sherlock Holmes (Secaucus, NJ: Castle Books, 1976), 449–463.
Albert D. Vandam, The Mystery of the Patrician Club (Philadelphia, 1894).
Sigma, “A Club Scandal,” The World, November 28, 1894, 28–29.
P. D. Edwards, Dickens’s “Young Men”: George Augustus Sala, Edmund Yates and the World of Victorian Journalism (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1997,) 67.
Nancy W. Ellenberger, “Constructing George Wyndham: Narratives of Aristocratic Masculinity in Fin-de-Siècle England,” Journal of British Studies 39, no. 4 (2000): 491.
Philip Mason, The English Gentleman: The Rise and Fall of an Ideal (London: A. Deutsch, 1982), 82.