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The implementation of the Eisenhower Doctrine ushered in the next phase of the administration’s involvement in the Middle East. The United States became the guardian of the conservative order. Similar to the Baghdad Pact, the doctrine was yet another Western move that served to polarize the Middle East and inflame inter-Arab rivalries. The reception of the Eisenhower Doctrine was predictably mixed: Egypt took the lead in opposing it, while the more conservative regimes saw it as useful leverage in dealing with both local and external threats. The application of the doctrine led the United States to assist the Jordanian monarchy militarily and directly intervene in the Lebanese civil war. One of the ironic aspects of this policy was that it further expedited Russia’s entry into the Middle East. Once confronted with America’s attempt to bolster conservative forces to their detriment, the leftist regimes turned to the only source of political, economic and military support still available to them, namely the Soviet Union. Far from achieving stability, the US policy led to a rigid division of the Arab world and greater Russian involvement in a strategically critical region.
KeywordsMiddle East Arab World Conservative Regime American Policy Egyptian Regime
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