Culture and Cultural Strategies in the Context of ‘Global’ Restructuring

  • Marjorie Mayo


Culture, it has been suggested, ‘is probably the broadest concept of all those used in the historical social sciences. It embraces a very large range of connotations, and thereby it is the cause perhaps of the most difficulty’ (Wallerstein, 1990, p. 31). Raymond Williams commented that ‘Culture is one of the two or three most complicated words in the English language’ (Williams, 1976). The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology defines culture as ‘the accumulated store of symbols, ideas, and material products associated with a social system, whether it be an entire social system or a family’ (Johnson, 1995, p. 68). Culture, in the sociological sense, is ‘learned behaviour’, nurture rather than nature, humankind’s social inheritance, ‘the skills, knowledge and accepted ways of behaving of the society’, ‘“the ways of life” of society’s members’, a design for living which is both learned and shared (Haralambos and Holborn, 1991, pp. 2–3). Without culture in this sense, there can be no human society.


Cultural Capital Cultural Politics Adult Education Identity Politics Cultural Strategy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. L. Althusser (1984) Essays on Ideology (London: Verso).Google Scholar
  2. P. Anderson (1979) Considerations on Western Marxism (London: Verso).Google Scholar
  3. S. Aronowitz and H. Giroux (1986) Education under Siege (London: Routledge).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. D. Bell (1961) The End of Ideology (New York, Free Press; London: Collier-Macmillan).Google Scholar
  5. P. Bourdieu (1984) Distinction (London: Routledge).Google Scholar
  6. P. Bourdieu (1988) Homo Academicus (Cambridge: Polity Press).Google Scholar
  7. A. Cheater (1989) Social Anthropology (London: Unw in Hyman).Google Scholar
  8. J. Clarke et al., eds (1979) Working Class Culture (London: Hutchinson).Google Scholar
  9. I. Davies (1995) Cultural Studies and Beyond (London: Routledge).Google Scholar
  10. M. Ferguson and P. Golding (1997) ‘Cultural Studies and Changing Times: an Introduction’ in M. Ferguson and P. Golding, eds (1997) Cultural Studies in Question (London: Sage) xiii–xxvii.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. M. Foucault (1979) Discipline and Punish (Harmondsworth: Penguin).Google Scholar
  12. P. Freire (1972) Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Harmondsworth: Penguin).Google Scholar
  13. P. Freire (1995) Paulo Freire at the Institute (London: Institute of Education).Google Scholar
  14. F. Fukuyama (1992) The End of History: the Last Man (London: Pergamom).Google Scholar
  15. N. Garnham (1997) ‘Political Economy and the Practice of Cultural Studies’ in M. Ferguson and P. Golding, eds (1997) Cultural Studies in Question (London: Sage) 56–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. A. Giddens (1989) Sociology (Cambridge: Polity Press).Google Scholar
  17. H. Giroux and S. Aronowitz (1991) Postmodern Education (Minneapolis, USA: University of Minneapolis University Press).Google Scholar
  18. T. Gitlin (1997) ‘The Anti-political Populism of Cultural Studies’ in M. Ferguson and P. Golding, eds (1997) Cultural Studies in Question (London: Sage) 25–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. S. Hall (1991) ‘Introductory Essay: Reading Gramsci’ in R. Simon (1991) Gramsci’s Political Thought (London: Lawrence and Wishart) 7–10.Google Scholar
  20. M. Haralambos and M. Holborn (1991) Sociology: Themes and Perspectives (London: Collins).Google Scholar
  21. D. Harvey (1990) The Condition of Postmodernity (Oxford: Blackwell).Google Scholar
  22. F. Jameson (1984) ‘Postmodernism, or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism’ in New Left Review, 146, 53–92.Google Scholar
  23. C. Jenks (1993) Culture (London: Routledge).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. A. King (1991) ‘Introduction’ in A. King, ed. (1991) Culture, Globalization and the World System (London: Macmillan) 1–18.Google Scholar
  25. A. Johnson (1995) The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology (Oxford: Blackwell).Google Scholar
  26. R. Johnson (1979) ‘Culture and the Histories’ in J. Clarke et al., eds (1979) Working Class Culture (London: Hutchinson) 40–71.Google Scholar
  27. R. Johnson (1979) ‘Three Problematics: elements of a theory of working class culture’ in J Clarke et al. (1979) Working Class Culture (London: Hutchinson) 201–37.Google Scholar
  28. S. Lash (1993) ‘Pierre Bourdieu’ in C. Calhoun et al., eds (1993) Bourdieu: Cultural Perspectives (Cambridge: Polity Press) 193–211.Google Scholar
  29. M. Ledwith (1997) Participating in Transformation (Birmingham: Venture Press).Google Scholar
  30. J. McGuigan (1997) ‘Cultural Populism Revisited’ in M. Ferguson and P. Golding, eds (1997) Cultural Studies in Question (London: Sage) 138–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. M. Mayo (1997) Imagining Tomorrow (Leicester: National Institute of Adult Continuing Education).Google Scholar
  32. P. Mayo (1999) Gramsci, Freire and Adult Education (London: Zed).Google Scholar
  33. K. Marx (1968) ‘The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte’, in K. Marx and F. Engels, Selected Works (London: Lawrence and Wishart).Google Scholar
  34. K. Marx (1970) The German Ideology (London: Lawrence and Wishart).Google Scholar
  35. I. Meszaros (1991) ‘Lukacs’ in T. Bottomore et al., eds (1991) A Dictionary of Marxist Thought (Oxford: Blackwell) 325–7.Google Scholar
  36. Novosti Press Agency (1983) Fundamentals of Political Knowledge (Moscow: Novosti Press Agency Publishing House).Google Scholar
  37. K. Popple (1995) Analysing Community Work (Buckingham: Open University Press).Google Scholar
  38. M. Postone, E. LiPuma and C. Calhoun (1993) ‘Introduction: Bourdieu and Social Theory’ in C. Calhoun, E. LiPuma and M. Postone, eds (1993) Bourdieu: Critical Perspectives (Cambridge: Polity Press).Google Scholar
  39. E. Said (1994) Culture and Imperialism (London: Vintage).Google Scholar
  40. J. Scott (1990) Domination and the Arts of Resistance: hidden transcripts (Yale, USA: Yale University Press).Google Scholar
  41. D. Sholle (1992) ‘Authority on the Left: Critical Pedagogy, Postmodernism and Vital Strategies’ in Cultural Studies, Vol. 6, No. 2, 271–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. B. Smart (1992) Modern Condition, Postmodern Controversies (London: Routledge).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. T. Steele (1995) ‘Cultural Struggle or Identity Politics: Can There Still be a ‘Popular Education’?’ in M. Mayo and J. Thompson, eds (1995) Adult Learning, Critical Intelligence and Social Change (Leicester: National Institute for Adult Continuing Education) 47–57.Google Scholar
  44. R. Taylor (1979) Filin Propaganda: Soviet Russia and Nazi Germany (London: Croom Helm).Google Scholar
  45. I. Wallerstein (1990) ‘Culture as the Ideological Battleground of the Modern World-System’ in Theory, Culture and Society, Vol. 7, Nos 2–3, June 1990, 31–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. S. Watson and K. Gibson, eds (1995) Postmodern Cities and Spaces (Oxford: Blackwell).Google Scholar
  47. R. Williams (1976) Keywords (London: Fontana).Google Scholar
  48. P. Willis (1977) Learning to Labour (London: Saxon House).Google Scholar
  49. J. Wolff (1991) ‘The Global and the Specific: Reconciling Conflicting Theories of Culture’ in A. King, ed. (1991) Culture, Globalization and the World System (London: Macmillan) 161–73.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Marjorie Mayo 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marjorie Mayo
    • 1
  1. 1.Goldsmiths CollegeUniversity of LondonUK

Personalised recommendations