Mobilizing for Independence: The Referendums and Presidential Election of 1991

  • Sarah Birch


Between the spring of 1990 and the end of 1991 the Ukrainian political elite crystallized into groups that were to have lasting relevance for the fledgling country’s politics. As the frank expression of political opinion was made increasingly possible, it became clear that opinion leaders were divided along two dimensions: nationalism and politico-economic reform. The events that took place over the course of 1991 served both to bring these divisions into relief and to shift the balance between groups. If the two dimensions are presented in schematic form, a number of possible categories result (see Figure 5.1).1
Figure 5.1

A schematic representation of the structure of the Ukrainian political elite in 1991


Communist Party Presidential Election Vote Choice Parliamentary Election Political Prisoner 
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Copyright information

© Sarah Birch 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah Birch
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GovernmentUniversity of EssexColchesterUK

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