Editors’ Introduction

  • Baogang He
  • Ethan J. Leib


Western theories of deliberative democracy have developed at a time when many in the West feel that the institutions of liberal democracy have become divorced from the promises of classical democratic theory. As a critique of liberal democracy, deliberative democracy usually presents principles to renew the democratic project and practices to deepen democracy. The application of the deliberative model to Chinese governance—while perhaps odd on the surface—provides an opportunity for the study of both deliberative democracy and contemporary Chinese politics. This book seeks to enrich our understanding of both deliberative democracy and Chinese politics by applying Western ideas to a foreign context for which it was not designed. By looking at the theory of deliberative democracy “against the grain,” the volume produces insights and modifications necessary for the application of the theory of deliberative democracy in both China and the West. Additionally, students of Chinese politics can gain through this book a new perspective on their subject matter and learn about the usefulness of deliberative democracy’s normative agenda in Chinese processes of democratization.


Chinese Communist Party Liberal Democracy Deliberative Democracy Democratic Legitimacy Political Equality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Works Cited

  1. Ackerman, Bruce, and James S. Fishkin. 2004. Deliberation Day. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Barber, Benjamin. 1984. Strong Democracy: Participatory Politics for a New Age. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  3. Barabas, Jason. 2004. “How Deliberation Affects Policy Opinion,” American Political Science Review 98(4): 687–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benhabib, Seyla. 1996. “Toward a Deliberative Model of Democratic Legitimacy.” In Seyla Benhabib ed., Democracy and Difference: Contesting the Boundaries of the Political. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Chen Jiagang. 2004. Deliberative Democracy. Shanghai: Shanghai Sanlian Bookstore.Google Scholar
  6. Cohen, Joshua. 1989. “Deliberation and Democratic Legitimacy.” In Alan Hamlin and Philip Pettit eds., The Good Polity. New York: Blackwell, 17–34.Google Scholar
  7. Cohen, Joshua. 1997. “Deliberation and Democratic Legitimacy.” In James Bohman and William Rehg eds., Deliberative Democracy: Essays on Reason and Politics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  8. Cohen, Joshua, and Charles Sabel. 1997. “Directly-Deliberative Polyarchy.” European Law Journal 3: 313–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dryzek, John S. 1990. Discursive Democracy: Politics, Policy, and Political Science. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Dryzek, John S. Democracy in Capitalist Times: Ideas, Limits, and Struggles. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Dryzek, John S. Deliberative Democracy and Beyond: Liberals, Critics, Contestations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Dryzek, John S, and Christian List. 2003. “Social Choice Theory and Deliberative Democracy: A Reconciliation.” British Journal of Political Science 33(1): 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fishkin, James. 1991. Democracy and Deliberation. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Fishkin, James. 1995. The Voice of the People: Public Opinion and Democracy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Fishkin, James, and Peter Laslett, eds. 2003. Debating Deliberative Democracy. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  16. Fung, Archon. 2003. “Recipes for Public Spheres: Eight Institutional Design Choices and Their Consequences.” Journal of Political Philosophy 11(3): 338–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fung, Archon, and Erik Olin Wright. 2001. “Deepening Democracy: Experiments in Empowered Participatory Governance.” Politics and Society 29: 5–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goodin, Robert. 2002. Reflective Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Grondin, Jean. 2003. The Philosophy of Gadamer. trans. Kathryn Plant. Chesham: Acumen Publishers.Google Scholar
  20. Gutmann, Amy, and Dennis Thompson. 1996. Democracy and Disagreement. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Gutmann, Amy, and Dennis Thompson. 2004. Why Deliberative Democracy? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Habermas, Jürgen. 1984. The Theory of Communicative Action: Reason and the Rationalization of Society. trans. [see above] Thomas McCarthy. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  23. Habermas, Jürgen. 1996. Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  24. Habermas, Jürgen. 1998. The Inclusion of the Other. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  25. He, Baogang. 1996. The Democratization of China. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Habermas, Jürgen, and Lang Youxing. 2002. Balancing Democracy and Authority: An Empirical Study of Village Election in Zhejiang. Wuhan: Central China Normal University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Howell, Jude. 1998. “Prospects for Village Self-governance in China.” The Journal of Peasant Studies 25(3): 86–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jakes, Susan. 2005. “Dabbling in Democracy,” Time Asia, April 16.Google Scholar
  29. Leib, Ethan J. 2002. “Towards a Practice of Deliberative Democracy.” Rutgers Law Journal 33 (2): 359–456.Google Scholar
  30. Leib, Ethan J. 2004. Deliberative Democracy in America: A Proposal for a Popular Branch of Government. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Leib, Ethan J. 2005. “The Chinese Communist Party and Deliberative Democracy.” The Journal of Public Deliberation 1: 1–6.Google Scholar
  32. Li Junru. 2005. “What Kind of Democracy Should China Establish?” Beijing Daily, September 26.Google Scholar
  33. Lin Shangli. 2003. “Deliberative Politics: A Reflection on the Democratic Development of China.” Academic Monthly (Shanghai) 4: 19–25.Google Scholar
  34. O’Brien, K. 1994. “Villagers’ Committees: Implementing Political Reform in China’s Villages.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, 32: 33–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. O’Brien, K, and Lianjiang Li. 2000. “Accommodating ‘Democracy’ in a One-Party State: Introducing Village Elections in China.” The China Quarterly 162: 465–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Oi, Jean C., and Scott Rozelle. 2000. “Elections and Power: The Locus of Decision-Making in Chinese Villages.” The China Quarterly 162: 513–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Posner, Richard. 2003. Law, Pragmatism, and Democracy. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Rawls, John. 1996. Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Rosenberg, Shawn. 2004. “Facilitating Democratic Deliberations: A Preliminary Report of an Experimental Study.” Paper presented at The International Conference on Deliberative Democracy at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou, November 18–21.Google Scholar
  40. Shi, Tianjian. 1999. “Village Committee Elections in China: Institutional Tactics for Democracy.” World Politics 51: 385–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Thurston, Anne F. 1998. “Muddling toward Democracy: Political Change in Grassroots China.” Peaceworks no. 23. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, available at Scholar
  42. Uhr, John. 1998. Deliberative Democracy in Australia: The Changing Place of Parliament. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Unger, Jonathan. 2002. The Transformation of Rural China. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ethan J. Leib and Baogang He 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Baogang He
  • Ethan J. Leib

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations