The Transnational Redress Campaign for Chinese Survivors of Wartime Sexual Violence in Shanxi Province

  • Yuki Terazawa


Since the subject of former military sex slaves, the so-called “comfort women” of the Japanese Imperial Army during the Asia-Pacific War, became widely known in the early 1990s, many groups and individuals in Asia and around the world have keenly watched the evolution of efforts to obtain redress for these women. Following Kim Haksoon of South Korea, who came forward in August 1991, women from South Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and the Netherlands have provided testimony about their ordeals and brought court cases against the Japanese government.1 The investigation of wartime sexual violence and slavery on mainland China began later. Although a few Chinese victims in Shanxi province had been identified in the early 1990s, it was not until the mid-1990s that activists and scholars began to seriously research and publicize the experiences of these Chinese women. Eventually three court cases involving a total of sixteen survivors of wartime rape in Shanxi province were brought before the Japanese court,2 along with a case on behalf of eight survivors from Hainan Island.3


Shanxi Province Japanese Government Sexual Service Sexual Slavery Rape Survivor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agence France Presse. 2004. “China Tells Japan to Properly Handle Court Case by Chinese Sex Slaves.” December 16.Google Scholar
  2. Bengodan seimei (The statement of the legal counsels). 2007. Chûgokujin “ianfu” jiken bengodan and chûgokujin sensô higai baishô seikyû jiken bengodan (The Chinese “comfort women” lawsuit legal counsel and the legal counsel for Chinese war victims’ compensation lawsuits). April 27. Retrieved on May 28, 2008 from
  3. Dong, Mao. 2004. “Aixin boche Xiyangzhen” (Love pours in Xiyangzhen). Shanxi Shangbao (Shanxi Commercial Daily). June 11.Google Scholar
  4. Fogel, Joshua A. 2000. The Nanjing Massacre in History and Historiography. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fujioka, Nobukatsu. 2003. Atarashii kyôkasho wo tsukurukai ga tou nihon no bijon (The vision for Japan that the group to write a new textbook explores). Tokyo: Fusôsha.Google Scholar
  6. Fukuda, Akinori. 2003. Interviewed by author (August). Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  7. He, Yinan. 2007a. “History, Chinese Nationalism and the Emerging Sino-Japanese Conflict.” Journal of Contemporary China 16, no. 50 (February): 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. He, Yinan. 2007b. “Remembering and Forgetting the War: Elite Mythmaking, Mass Reaction, and Sino-Japanese Relations, 1950–2006.” History and Memory 19, no.2 ( Fall/Winter): 43–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ikeda, Eriko. 2004. Interviewed by author (August). Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  10. Ikeda, Eriko. 2007. “Bukyô no hachirogun taikô kinenkan wo tazunete” (Our visit to the Eighth Route Army Taihang Memorial Museum in Wuxiang). Chukouqi (The Newsletter of the Sanseishô, Akirakani Suru Kai), no. 43 (October 27): 2–4.Google Scholar
  11. Ishida, Yoneko. 2004. Interviewed by author (August). Taiyuan, China.Google Scholar
  12. Ishida, Yoneko. 2005. “Shinobiyoru saigetsu: Dakarakoso” (Time passes by and that’s why). Chukouqi, no.35 (May 9): 7–9.Google Scholar
  13. Ishida, Yoneko. 2006a. “Ima watashitachiga yarerukoto, mosaku shite irukoto” (What we can do for them and what we are considering doing). Chukouqi, no.41 (December 20): 2–6.Google Scholar
  14. Ishida, Yoneko. 2006b. “Konomamadewa owarenai” (We cannot end our fight as we have been left). Chukouqi, no.40 (June 30): 6–12.Google Scholar
  15. Ishida, Yoneko, Nobuhiro Katô, and Aiko Utsumi, eds. 2005. Aru nihonhei no futatsu no senjô (The two battlefields in the experience of a soldier). Tokyo: Shakai Hyôron Sha.Google Scholar
  16. Ishida, Yoneko, and Ômori Noriko. 2000. “Chûgoku Sanseishô ni okeru nihongun seibôryoku no jittai” (The facts of sexual violence committed by the Japanese Army in Shanxi province, China). In Nishino Rumiko and Hayashi Hirofumi, eds. “Ianfu” senji seibôryoku no jittai, (The facts of wartime sexual violence involving “comfort women”), vol. 2, 21–78. Tokyo: Ryokufû Shuppan.Google Scholar
  17. Ishida, Yoneko, and Tomoyuki Uchida, eds. 2004. Kôdo no Mura no Seibôryoku (Sexual violence in villages of yellow earth). Tokyo: Sôdo Sha.Google Scholar
  18. Japan Economic Newswire. 2005a. “High Court Rejects Chinese Women’s Suit over Wartime Rapes.” March 31.Google Scholar
  19. Japan Economic Newswire. 2005b. “Top Court Rejects Chinese Women’s Suit over Wartime Rapes.” November 19.Google Scholar
  20. Kasahara, Tokushi. 1997. Nankin Jiken (The Nanjing incident). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.Google Scholar
  21. Katô, Nobuhiro. 2004. Interviewed by author (August). Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  22. Kawaguchi, Kazuko. 2004a. Interviewed by author (July and August). Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  23. Kawaguchi, Kazuko. 2004b. “Kawaguchi Bengoshi no Shôgen” (The testimony of Attorney Kawaguchi). Chukouqi, no.33 (December 10): 2–7.Google Scholar
  24. Kawami, Kimiko. 2004. Interviewed by author (August). Tokyo, Japan and Beijing, China.Google Scholar
  25. Kim, Puja, and Son Yonok, eds. 2000. “Ianfu” senji seibôryoku no jittai (The facts of wartime sexual violence involving “comfort women”), vol. 1. Tokyo: Ryokufû Shuppan.Google Scholar
  26. Kobayashi, Daisuke, ed. 2008. Netto uyokutte donna yatsu? (What kinds of people are the Internet rightists?). Tokyo: Takarajimasha.Google Scholar
  27. Kobayashi, Yoshinori. 1996–2000. Shin gômanisuto sengen (New haughtiness manifesto), vol. 18. Tokyo: Shôgakuka.Google Scholar
  28. Kobayashi, Yoshinori. 1998–2003. Shin gômanisuto sengen supesharu (New haughtiness manifesto special), vols. 1–3. Tokyo: Gentôsha.Google Scholar
  29. Kondô, Hajime. 2002. “Senjô de watashiga taiken shitakoto” (What I experienced in the battlefields). In No moa nankin no kai, ed. Nankin daigyakusatsu 64 ka nen, 2001 Tokyo shûkai hôkokushû (The report on the Tokyo meeting to commemorate the 64th Nanjing massacre anniversary), 49–60. Tokyo: No moa nankin no ka.Google Scholar
  30. Kondô, Ruman, and Tanizaki Akira, eds. 2007. Netto uyoku to sabukaru minshu shugi (The rights of internet activists and the subculture of democracy). Tokyo: San’ichi Shobô.Google Scholar
  31. The New York Times. 2007. “Japan Court Rules against Sex Slaves and Laborers.” April 28.Google Scholar
  32. Nihon no Sensô Sekinin Shiryô Sentâ, ed. 1998. Shinpojium: Nashonarizumu to “ianfu” mondai (Symposium: Nationalism and “Comfort Women” Issues). Tokyo: Aoki Shoten.Google Scholar
  33. Nômoa Nankinno Kai, ed. 2002. Kurikaesuna sensô to gyakusatsu (Never repeat wars and massacres). Tokyo: Nômoa Nankin no Kai.Google Scholar
  34. Oguma, Eiji, and Ueno Yôko. 2003. Iyashi no nashonarizumu (Nationalism of healing). Tokyo: Keiiôgijuku Daigaku Shuppankai.Google Scholar
  35. Sato, Shigemi. 2007. “Japan Ruling Denies Chinese Right to War Damages.” Agence France Presse. April 27.Google Scholar
  36. Seraphim, Franziska. 2006. War Memory and Social Politics in Japan, 1945–2005. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center.Google Scholar
  37. Seraphim, Franziska. 2007. “People’s Diplomacy: The Japan-China Friendship Association and Critical War Memory in the 1950s.” Japan Focus: An Asia Pacific e-journal (August 18). Retrieved on July 10, 2008 from The_Japan_China_Friendship_Association_and_Critical_War_Memory_in_the_1950s Tamaki, Keiko. 2004. Interviewed by author. August. Tokyo, Japan.
  38. Seraphim, Franziska. 2006. “Hachigatsu hôchû hôkoku” (Report on our August visit). Chukouqi, no.41 (December 20): 7–10.Google Scholar
  39. Tanaka, Yuki. 2003. Japan’s Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery and Prostitution during World War IIGoogle Scholar
  40. and the US Occupation. New York: Routledge. Tasaki, Toshitaka. 2004. Interviewed by author (August). Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  41. Terazawa, Yuki. 2006. “The Transnational Campaign for Redress for Wartime Rape by the Japanese Military: Cases for Survivors in Shanxi Province.” NWSA (National Women’s Studies Association)Journal 18, no. 3 (Fall): 226–233.Google Scholar
  42. Terazawa, Yuki. 2008. Field observations by author. Wuxiang, Shanxi province, China.Google Scholar
  43. Tokudome, Kinue. 2007. “Passage of H. Res. 121 on ‘Comfort Women,’ the US Congress and Historical Memory in Japan.” Japan Focus: An Asia Pacific e-journal (August 30). Retrieved on July 10, 2008 from
  44. Uesugi, Satoshi. 2003. “Nihon ni okeru’ shûkyô uyoku’ no taitô to ‘tsukurukai’ ‘nihon kaigi’” (The emergence of the “religious right” in Japan, “the group to write a new textbook” and the “Japan Conference”). Senso sekinin kenkyû (The Report on Japan’s War Responsibility), no.39, 44–56.Google Scholar
  45. Xinhua General News Service. 2004. “FM Spokesman: Japan Should Properly Handle’ sex Slave’ Issue.” December 16. Retrieved on May 28, 2008 from
  46. Yoshimi, Yoshiaki. 2000. “‘Jûgun ianfu’ seisaku ni okeru nihon kokka no shiki meirei keitô” (The Japanese government’s command structure for the “military comfort women” policy). In Kim Puja and Son Yonok, eds. “lanfu” senji seibôryoku no jittai (The facts of wartime sexual violence involving “comfort women”), vol. 1, 42–64. Tokyo: Ryokufû Shuppan.Google Scholar
  47. Zhang, Shuangbing. 2002. “Interview by the Presiding Judge.” Court Document, Tokyo Higher Court, Case Number (Ne) 2621 (June 2). Transcriber, Kutsuzawa Miyuki.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Siu-Keung Cheung, Joseph Tse-Hei Lee, and Lida V. Nedilsky 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuki Terazawa

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations