Scaling the Eight Walls
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According to Larry Diamond, a basic democratic framework includes freedom of expression, association, and press; an independent judiciary; a functioning legislature; the rule of law and due process; an apolitical and constitutionalist military and security apparatus; and protected human and civil rights.1 A central finding of “transitology” is that democratization results from a combination of causes. Most transition theories embrace complex interaction effects—political and economic, domestic and international. Across a range of cases, no single actor is either necessary or sufficient to cause democratization.2 Each democratic transition is unique and organic by nature, and Egypt is no exception.
KeywordsCivil Society Political Reform Democratic Transition Opposition Parti Parliamentary Election
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