Scaling the Eight Walls



According to Larry Diamond, a basic democratic framework includes freedom of expression, association, and press; an independent judiciary; a functioning legislature; the rule of law and due process; an apolitical and constitutionalist military and security apparatus; and protected human and civil rights.1 A central finding of “transitology” is that democratization results from a combination of causes. Most transition theories embrace complex interaction effects—political and economic, domestic and international. Across a range of cases, no single actor is either necessary or sufficient to cause democratization.2 Each democratic transition is unique and organic by nature, and Egypt is no exception.


Civil Society Political Reform Democratic Transition Opposition Parti Parliamentary Election 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 6.
    Uhlin, Anders, Indonesian and the “Third Wave of Democratization,” the Indonesian Pro-democracy Movement in a Changing World (London: Curzon Press, First Published, 1997), 158.Google Scholar
  2. 8.
    Byman, Daniel L., “The Implications of Leadership Change in the Arab World,” Political Science Quarterly, vol. 120, no. 1 (Spring 2005), 76. Scholar
  3. 27.
    Sestanovich, Stephen, “Russian Democracy in Eclipse: Force, Money, and Pluralism,” Journal of Democracy, vol. 15, no. 3, (July 2004), 32–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 31.
    Alterman, Jon B., “Egypt: Stable, but for How Long?,” The Washington Quarterly, (Autumn 2000): 107–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 52.
    Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina, “Corruption: Diagnosis and Treatment,” Journal of Democracy, vol. 17, no. 3 (July 2006), 86–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 60.
    McFaul, Michael, “Transitions from Postcommunism,” Journal of Democracy, vol. 16, no. 3 (July 2005), 9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 63.
    Johnston, Michael, “Political Parties and Democracy,” Journal of Democracy, vol. 16, no. 3 (July 2005), 5–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 64.
    Fish M. Stevens, “Stronger Legislatures, Stronger Democracies,” Journal of Democracy, vol. 17, no. 1 (January 2006), 6–20Google Scholar
  9. 70.
    Yom, Sean L., “Civil Society and Democratization in the Arab World,” Middle East Review of International Affairs (MERIA), vol. 9, no. 4 (December 2004), 14–33Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Alaa Al-Din Arafat 2009

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations