Advertisement

The Longue Durée Of Quran Schooling, Society, And State In Senegambia

Chapter

Abstract

This chapter is a narrative of the history of the Quran school (daara/dudal) in Senegambia and, later, in Senegal. It is based on primary documentation and a wide reading of secondary works on the social, political, religious, and cultural history of Senegambia.2 In these pages I explore the social location of Quran schooling from the precolonial period to the end of the twentieth century. Islam has been an important part of Senegambia since the eleventh century, but it is only one factor that has given a certain analytical integrity to the region. The major ethnic groups in contemporary Senegambia share intertwined social and political histories stretching back to at least the thirteenth century. Speakers of Pular, Wolof, Sereer, Manding, and Soninke all mingled in Senegambia, and they had many similar (but not identical) social and political institutions. With the exception of many Sereer speakers, all belong to a broader distribution of societies containing lineages of royal, free, slave, and casted origins.3 Although all the major polities formed in Senegambia in the past millennium seem to have had an ethnic core, they were multiethnic states with enough aspects of shared social organization that mobility between ethnic groups was often more fluid than between social categories.

Keywords

Thirteenth Century Arabic Language Colonial Rule Muslim Brotherhood Islamic Education 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. Al-Naqar, ‘Umar. “Takrur the History of a Name.” Journal of African History 10 (1969): 365–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Babou, Cheikh Anta Mbacké. “Amadu Bamba and the Founding of the Muridiyya: The History of a Muslim Brotherhood in Senegal (1853–1913).” Doctoral dissertation., Department of History, Michigan State University, 2002.Google Scholar
  3. —. “Autour de la gènèse du mouridisme.” Islam et Sociétés au Sud du Sahara 11 (1997): 5–38.Google Scholar
  4. —. “Educating the Murid: Theory and Practices of Education in Amadu Bamba’s Thought.” Journal of Religion in Africa 33, no. 3 (2003 ): 310–27.Google Scholar
  5. Barreira, Baltesar. “Letter of Padre Baltesar Barreira to the Padre Provincial, Serra Leoa 15 April 1608.” In Jesuit Documents on the Guinea of Cape Verde and the Cape Verde Islands, 1585–1617: In English translation. Liverpool, England: University of Liverpool, 1989.Google Scholar
  6. Barry, Boubacar. “La Guerre des Marabouts dans la région du Fleuve Sénégal de 1673 a 1677.” BIFAN 32, ser. B (1971).Google Scholar
  7. Behrman, Lucy. Muslim Brotherhoods and Politics in Senegal. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bledsoe, Caroline H., and Kenneth M. Robey. “Arabic Literacy and Secrecy among the Mende of Sierra Leone,” Man 21, no. 2 (1986): 202–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boone, Catherine. Merchant Capital and the Roots of State Power in Senegal: 1930–1985. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bouche, Denise. “L’école française et les musulmans au Sénégal,” Revue française dhistoire doutre-mer, Tome LXI, No 223 (2ème Trimestre 1974): 218–35.Google Scholar
  11. —. LEnseignement dans les territoires français de lAfrique occidentale de 1817 à 1920: Mission civilisatrice ou formation dune élite. Lille: Atelier Reproduction des Thèses, 1975.Google Scholar
  12. Boulègue, Jean, ed. Contributions à lhistoire du Sénégal. Paris: Afera, 1987.Google Scholar
  13. —. “La Participation Possible des Centres de Pir et de Ndogal à la Révolution Islamique Sénégambienne de 1673.” In Contributions à lhistoire du Sénégal, edited by Jean Boul’egue. Paris: Afera, 1987.Google Scholar
  14. Brenner, Louis. “Concepts of Tariqa in West Africa: The Case of the Qadiriyya.” In Charisma and Brotherhood in African Islam, edited by Donal Cruise O’Brien and Christian Coulon. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988.Google Scholar
  15. —. Controlling Knowledge: Religion, Power and Schooling in a West African Muslim Society. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.Google Scholar
  16. —. “Histories of Religion in Africa.” Journal of Religion in Africa 30, no. 2 (2000): 143–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cappelle, Jean. LÉducation en Afrique Noire: à la veille des Indépendances1946–1958. Paris: Karthala, 1990.Google Scholar
  18. Cardaire, Marcel. LIslam et le terroir Africain. Koulouba: Imprimerie du Gouvernement, 1954.Google Scholar
  19. Cham, Mbye. “Islam in Senegalese Literature and Film.” In Faces of Islam in African Literature, edited by Kenneth Harrow, 163–86. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1991.Google Scholar
  20. Charles, Eunice A. “Shaikh Amadu Ba and Jihad in Jolof.” International Journal of African Historical Studies 8, no. 3 (1975 ): 367–82.Google Scholar
  21. Colin, Roland. Systèmes deducation et mutations sociales: Continuité et discontinuité dans les dynamiques socio-éducatives; Le cas du Sénégal. Lille: Atelier Reproduction des thèses, 1980.Google Scholar
  22. Collignon, René. “La lutte des pouvoirs publics contre les ‘encombrements humains’ à Dakar.” Canadian Journal of African Studies 18 (1984): 573–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Colvin, Lucie G. “Islam and the State of Kajoor: A Case of Successful Resistance to Jihad.” Journal of African History 15 (1974): 587–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. —. “The Shaykh’s Men: Religion and Power in Senegambian Islam.” In Rural and Urban Islam in West Africa, edited by Nehemia Levtzion and Humphrey Fisher. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1987.Google Scholar
  25. Conrad, David, and Barbara Frank, eds. Status and Identity in West Africa: The Nyamakalaw of Mande. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  26. Copans, Jean. Les marabouts de larachide: La confrérie mouride et les paysans du Sénégal. Paris: L’Harmattan, 1989.Google Scholar
  27. Comité National pour l’Action Sociale. “Rapport de synthèse du groupe de travail pour la participation des associations religieuses à l’action sociale: l’école coranique.” Dakar, 11 Juin 1969. (text available at the library of the Archives Nationales du Sénégal )Google Scholar
  28. Cowan, J. M., and Hans Wehr. A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (Arabic-English). 4th ed. Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, 1994.Google Scholar
  29. Cruise O’Brien, Donal, and Christian Coulon, eds. Charisma and Brotherhood in African Islam. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988.Google Scholar
  30. Curtin, Phillip. “Jihad in West Africa: Early Phases and Inter-Relations in Mauritania and Senegal.” Journal of African History 12 (1971): 11–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. d’Almada, André Alvares. Brief Treatise on the Rivers of Guinea: Being an English Translation of a Variorum Text of Tratado Breve Dos Rios De Guiné (c. 1594) Organised by the Late Avelino Teixeira Da Mota, Together with Incomplete Annotation; Translation, a Brief Introduction and Notes on Chapters 13–19 by P. E. H. Hair, and Notes On Chapters 1–6 by Jean Boulègue. Liverpool: University of Liverpool, 1984.Google Scholar
  32. de Chambonneau, Louis Mareau. “Deux texts sur le Sénégal (1673–1677).” BIFAN 30, ser. B (1968): 289–353.Google Scholar
  33. Delafosse, Maurice. “L’État actuel de I’Islam dans l’Afrique Occidentale Française.” RMM 11 (1910): 32–53.Google Scholar
  34. Department of History, University of Liverpool. “Jesuit documents on the Guinea of Cape Verde and the Cape Verde Islands, 1585–1617: in English translation.” Liverpool, England: Department of History, University of Liverpool, 1989.Google Scholar
  35. Destaing, E. “Rapport Destaing sur les écoles coraniques,” Archives Nationales du Sénégal dossier J86, document 111”Google Scholar
  36. Diagne, Souleymane Bachir. “The Future of Tradition.” In Senegal: Essays in Statecraft, edited by Moumar Coumba Diop. Dakar: Codesria, 1993.Google Scholar
  37. Diop, Amadou-Bamba. “Lat Dior et le problème musulman.” BIFAN 28, Sér. B, no. 1–2, (1966).Google Scholar
  38. Diop, M’Bissine. “Njangaan de Mahara Johnson Traoré.” Africultures 47 (2002).Google Scholar
  39. El-Hamel, Chouki. La vie intellectuelle Islamique dans le Sahel ouest-africain: Une étude sociale de lenseignement Islamique en Mauritanie et au nord du Mali (XVI–XIX siècles) et traduction annotée de Fath as-Shakur dal-Bartili al-Walati. Paris: l’Harmattan, 2002.Google Scholar
  40. Fall, Mar. “Les arabisants au Sénégal: Contre-élite ou courtiers?” In Le radicalisme Islamique au sud du Sahara, 197–212. Paris: Karthala, 1993.Google Scholar
  41. Gomez-Perez, Muriel, “Associations islamiques à Dakar,” Ousmane Kane and Jean-Louis Triaud (ed.), Islam et islamismes au sud du Sahara 1998, Paris, Karthala, pp. 137–53Google Scholar
  42. —. “Un mouvement culturel vers l’mdépendance: Le réformisme musulman au Sénégal (1956–1960 ).” In Les temps des marabouts: Itinéraires et stratégies Islamiques en Afrique occidentale Française, edited by David Robinson, Jean-Louis Triaud. Paris: Karthala, 1997.Google Scholar
  43. Gray, Christopher. “The Rise of the Niassene Tijaniiya, 1875 to the Present.” In Islam et islamismes au sud du Sahara, edited by Ousmane Kane et Jean-Louis Triaud. Paris: Karthala, 1998.Google Scholar
  44. Gueye, Sega. “L’ecole coranique.” Unpublished paper, Cahier de vacance, Ecole William Ponty VII-Se-9, conserved at Institut Fondamental d’Afrique Noire, Dakar, [undated, 1941–1944?] (54 p.).Google Scholar
  45. Hamet, Ismaël, ed. and trans. Chroniques de la Mauritanie Sénégalaise. Paris: Nacer Eddine, 1911.Google Scholar
  46. Hanson, John. “Islam, Migration and the Political Economy of Meaning: Fergo Nioro from the Senegal River Valley.” JAH 35, no. 1 (1994): 37–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Harrison, Christopher. France and Islam in West Africa, 1860–1960. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Heath, Deborah. “The Politics of Appropriateness and Appropriation: Recontextualizing Women’s Dance in Urban Senegal.” American Ethnologist 2l, no. 1 (1994): 88–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ka, Thierno. “L’Enseignement Arabe au Sénégal: l’ecole de Pir-Saniokhor son histoire et son rôle dans la culture arabo-islamique au Sénégal du XVIIe au XXe siècle.” These de Doctorat de Troisìeme Cycle, Université Paris-Sorbonne (Paris IV), 1982.Google Scholar
  50. Kaba, Lansiné. The Wahabiyya: Islamic Reform and Politics in French West Africa. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  51. Kamara, Muusa. Florilège au jardin de lhistoire des noirs: Zuhūr Al-Basātīn, documents, études et repertoires. Edited by Jean Schmitz, and Charles Becker. Translated by Saïd Bousbina. France: CNRS, 1998.Google Scholar
  52. Kane, Cheikh Hamidou. LAventure Ambigüe; récit. Paris: R. Julliard, 1961.Google Scholar
  53. Kane, Oumar. “Les Causes de la Révolution Musulrnane de 1776 dans le Fuuta-Tooro.” In Contributions à lhistoire du Sénégal, edited by Jean Boulègue. Paris: Afera, 1987.Google Scholar
  54. Kane, Ousmane, and Jean-Louis Triaud, eds. Islam et islamismes au sud du Sahara. Paris: Karthala, 1998.Google Scholar
  55. Khaldun, Ibn. The Muqaddimah: an introduction to history translated from the Arabic by Franz Rosenthal; abridged and edited by N. J. Dawood, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969Google Scholar
  56. Klein, Martin. Islam and Imperialism: Sine Saloum, 1847–1914. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  57. —. Slavery and Colonial Rule in French West Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. —. “Social and Economic Factors in the Muslim Revolution in Senegambia,” JAH 13, (1972): 419–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Levtzion, Nehemia. Islam in West Africa: Religion, Society and Politics to1800. Norfolk, VA: Variorum, 1994.Google Scholar
  60. —. “Merchants vs. Scholars and Clerics in West Africa: Differential and Complementary Roles.” In Rural and Urban Islam in West Africa, edited by Nehemia Levtzion and Humphrey J. Fisher. Boulder: L. Rienner, 1987.Google Scholar
  61. Levtzion, Nehemia, and Humphrey J. Fisher, eds. Rural and Urban Islam in West Africa. Boulder: L. Rienner, 1987.Google Scholar
  62. Loimeier, Roman. “Cheikh Touré: Du réformisme a l’islamisme un musulman Sénégalais dans le siècle.” In Islam et Islamismes au Sud du Sahara, edited by Ousmane Kane and Jean-Louis Triaud, 55–66. Paris: Karthala et Iremam, 1998.Google Scholar
  63. —. “Je veux étudier sans mendier: The Campaign Against the Qur’ānic Schools in Senegal.” In Social Welfare in Muslim Societies in Africa, edited by Holger Weiss, 118–37. Stockholm: Elanders Gotab, 2002.Google Scholar
  64. —. “L’Islam ne se vend plus: The Islamic Reform Movement and the State in Senegal.” Journal of Religion in Africa 30, no. 2 (2000): 168–90.Google Scholar
  65. Ly, Cité. Où va lAfrique. Dakar: n.p. and n.d.Google Scholar
  66. Martin, Bradford G. Muslim Brotherhoods in Nineteenth Century Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  67. Marty, Paul. Etudes sur lIslam au Sénégal. Paris: Leroux, 1917.Google Scholar
  68. Mbacké, Khadim. “Impact de l’Islam sur la société Sénégalaise.” Africa 53, no. 4 (1998): 530–56.Google Scholar
  69. —. “Le rôle du mouvement réformiste dans le développement du Sénégal au XXème sièle.” Africa 57 (2002): 87–101.Google Scholar
  70. Mbaye, Ravane. “L’Islam au Senegal.” These de Doctorat de Troisième Cycle, Département d’Arabe, Université de Dakar, 1975–1976.Google Scholar
  71. Mbengue, Babacar. “L’enseignement de l’Arabe dans le système scolaire colonial du Sénégal.” Mémoire de Maîtrise, Département d’Arabe, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, 1992–1993.Google Scholar
  72. McIntosh, Roderick. “The Pulse Model: Genesis and Accommodation of Specialization in the Middle Niger, JAH 34 (1993): 181–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Meunier, Olivier. Dynamique de lenseignement Islamique au Niger: Le cas de la villa de Maradi. Paris: L’Harmattan, 1997.Google Scholar
  74. Mommersteeg, Geert. “L’éducation coranique au Mali: Le pouvoir des mots sacrés.” In LEnseignement Islamique au Mali, edited by Bintou Sanankoua and Louis Brenner. Bamako: Jamana, 1991.Google Scholar
  75. Monod, Theodore. Description de la côte dAfrique de Ceuta au Sénégal. Paris: Larosse, 1938.Google Scholar
  76. Ndiaye, Mamadou. Lenseignement Arabo-Islamique au Sénégal. Istanbul: Centre de recherches sur l’histoire, l’art et la culture islamiques, 1985.Google Scholar
  77. —. “Communication de l’Institut Islamique de Dakar.” Unpublished paper, Séminaire sur l’enseignement du Coran au Sénégal, Institut Islamique de Dakar, Département de l’Enseignement, 17–18 Mai, 1978.Google Scholar
  78. Perry, Donna L. “Muslim Child Disciples, Global Civil Society, and Children’s Rights in Senegal: The Discourses of Strategic Structuralism.” Anthropological Quarterly 77, no. 1 (2004): 47–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Piga, Adriana. Dakar et les ordres Soufis: Processus socioculturels et developpement urbain au Sénégal contemporain. Paris: L’Harmattan, 2002.Google Scholar
  80. Radtke, Bernd, and R S. O’Fahey. “Neo-Sufism Reconsidered.” Der Islam 70 (1993): 52–87.Google Scholar
  81. Robinson, David. “French Islamic Policy and Practice in Late 19th century Senegal.” JAH 29 (1988): 415–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. —. “The Islamic Revolution of Futa Toro.” IJAHS 8 (1975): 185–221.Google Scholar
  83. —. The Holy War of Umar Tal: The Western Sudan in the Mid-nineteenth Century. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985.Google Scholar
  84. —. “The Murids: Surveillance and Collaboration.” JAH 40 (1999): 192–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. —. Paths of Accommodation: Muslim Societies and French Colonial Authorities in Senegal and Mauritania, 1880–1920. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2000. Sanankou, Bintou, and Louis Brenner, eds. LEnseignement Islamique au Mali. Bamako: Éditions Jamana, 1991.Google Scholar
  86. Sanneh, Lamin. The Jakhanke Muslim Clerics: A Religious and Historical Study of Islam in Senegambia. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1989.Google Scholar
  87. —. “The Origins of Clericalism in West African Islam.” JAH 17 (1976): 49–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Santerre, Renaud. Pédagogie musulmane dAfrique noire: L’école coranique peule du Cameroun.Google Scholar
  89. Montréal: Les Presses de l’Universite de Montréal, 1973.Google Scholar
  90. Schmitz, Jean. “Le souffle de la parenté: Mariage et transmission de la baraka chez des clerc musulman de la Vallée du Sénégal.” LHomme 154 (2000): 241–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. —. “Un politologue chez les marabouts.” Cahiers detudes Africaines 91, no. 22–23 (1983): 329–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Searing, James F. ‘God Alone Is King’: Islam and Emancipation in Senegal: The Wolof Kingdoms of Kajoor and Bawol, 1859:1914. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2002.Google Scholar
  93. Sirriyeh, Elizabeth. Sufis and Anti-Sufis: The Defence, Rethinking and Rejection of Sufism in the Modern World. Richmond. Surrey: Curzon Press, 1999.Google Scholar
  94. Skinner, David E. “Islam and Education in the Colony and Hinterland of Sierra Leone (1750–1914).” CJAS 10, no. 3 (1976): 499–520.Google Scholar
  95. Tamari, Tal. “The Development of Caste Systems in West Africa.” JAH 32 (1991): 221–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. —. “Les agents réligieux Islamiques en Afrique tropicale: Reflexions autour d’un theme.” CJAS 19 (1985): 271–82.Google Scholar
  97. —. Les castes de lAfrique occidentale: Artisans et musicians endogames. Nanterre: Société d’Ethnologie, 1997.Google Scholar
  98. Touré, Abd al-Aziz Muhammad al-Hadi. Unpublished paper, “Sur l’exèmple de l’école Coranique de Fas Touré.” Seminaire sur l’enseignement du Coran au Sénégal, Institut Islamique de Dakar, Departement de l’Enseignement, 17–18 Mai, 1978.Google Scholar
  99. Triaud, Jean-Louis. “Les agents religieux Islamiques en Afrique tropicale: réflexions autour d’un thème.” CJAS 19 (1985): 271–82.Google Scholar
  100. —. La légende noire de la Sanusiyya: une confrérie musulmane saharienne sous le regard français, 1840–1930. Paris: Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l’homme, 1995.Google Scholar
  101. —. “Le crépuscule des affaires musulmanes en AOF, 1950–1956.” In Le temps des marabouts: itinéraires et stratégies Islamiques en Afrique occidentale française, edited by David Robinson and Jean-Louis Triaud. Paris: Karthala, 1997.Google Scholar
  102. Triaud, Jean-Louis, and David Robinson, eds. La Tijâniyya: Une confrérie musulmane à la conquête de lAfrique. Paris: Karthala, 2000.Google Scholar
  103. —. Le temps des marabouts: Itinéraires et stratégies Islamiques en Afrique occidentale française. Paris: Karthala, 1997.Google Scholar
  104. Viker, Knut. Sufi and Scholar on the Desert Edge: Muhammad b. ‘Ali al-Sanusi and His Brotherhood. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  105. Villalón, Leonardo. Islamic Society and State Power in Senegal: Disciples and Citizens in Fatick. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wane, Amadou. “Trois ans d’école coranique.” Unpublished Paper, Cahier de vacance, Ecole William Ponty VII-Se-2, conserved at IFAN, Dakar, academic year 1943–1944 (99 p.).Google Scholar
  107. Ware, Rudolph T. “Knowledge, Faith, and Power: A History of Qur’ānic Schooling in Twentieth Century Senegal.” Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2004.Google Scholar
  108. —. “Njángaan: The Daily Regime Qur’ānic Students in Twentieth Century Senegal.” IJAHS 37, no. 3 (2004): 515–38.Google Scholar
  109. —. and Robert Launay, “Comment (ne pas) lire le Coran: Logiques de l’enseignement religieux au Sénégal et en Cote d’Ivoire,” in Gilles Holder (ed.), LIslam en Afrique: vers un espace public religieux?: Editions aux lieux d’être, forthcoming, 2008.Google Scholar
  110. Wiegelmann, Ulrike. “Alphabetisierung und Grundbildung in Senegal. Ein empirischer Vergleich zwishen modernen und traditionellen Bildungsgängen und Schulen,” PhD thesis, Münster, 1998.Google Scholar
  111. —. “Die Koranschule—Eine Alternative zur öffendichen Grundschule in einem laizistischen Staat?” Zeitschriftfür Padagogik 40, no. 5 (1994): 803–20.Google Scholar
  112. Willis, John Ralph. “The Torodbe Clerisy: A Social View.” JAH 19 (1978): 195–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Mamadou Diouf and Mara A. Leichtman 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of MichiganUSA

Personalised recommendations