The Worldviews of Chinese Leadership and Sino—U.S. Relations



China’s fourth generation leadership is mostly made up of technocrats, who are therefore more pragmatic than their revolutionary predecessors. The new leadership includes firm supporters and practitioners of reform and open policies, and has reaped the benefits of these policies in witnessing their once isolated and backward country emerge as a dominant power on the world stage. Under this backdrop, the fourth generation leadership has developed unique views of the world.


Foreign Policy International Relation Fourth Generation Shanghai Cooperation Organization Summit Meeting 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Susan Shirk, “The Succession Game,” Asia Program Special Report, no. 105 (September 2002): 9. Scholar
  2. 3.
    Cheng Li, China’s Leaders: The New Generation (Lanham, MA: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001), 197–203.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    Chih-Chia Hsu, “Zhonggong waijiao zhengce de yanjiu tujing” [Research approaches to the studies of China’s foreign policy], Wenti yu yanjiu [Issues and studies] 36, no. 4 (April 1997): 55–56.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    Mao Zedong, “Maodun lun” [On contradiction], Maozedong xuanji I [Mao Zedong selected works], Vol 1 (Guangdong: Renmin chubanshe, 1991), 320–34; “Guanyu zhengque chuli renmin neibu maodun de wenti” (“On the Issue of Correctly Dealing with People’s Inner Contradictions”), Maozedong xuanji [Mao Zedong selected works], Vol. 5 (Shanghai: Renmin chubanshe, 1977), 363–65.Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    Yuan-Kang Wang, “Offensive Realism and the Rise of China,” Issues & Studies 40, no.1 (March 2004): 175.Google Scholar
  6. 7.
    James E. Dougherty and Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Contending Theories of International Relations: A Comprehensive Survey, 3rd ed. (New York: Harper Collins, 1990), 81.Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    Alexander Wendt, “Collective Identity Formation and the International State,” American Political Science Review 88, no. 2 (June 1994): 385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 9.
    Emanuel Adler, “Seizing the Middle Ground: Constructivism in World Politics,” European Journal of International Relations 3, no.3 (September 1997): 323.Google Scholar
  9. 10.
    John MacMillian and Andrew Linklater, eds., Boundaries in Question: New Directions in International Relations (New York: St. Martin’s, 1995), 5.Google Scholar
  10. 11.
    Fang Zhangping, “Jiango zhuyi: Chuangxin, yiyi ji wenti” [Constructivism: Innovation, meaning and questions], Shijei jingji yu zhengzhi [World economics and politics], no. 7, July 2004, Scholar
  11. 12.
    Deng Xiaoping, “Heping he fazhan shi dangdai shijie de liangda wenti” [Peace and development are two major issues in the world], in Dengxiaoping wenxuan [Deng Xiaoping selected works], Vol. 3 (Tienjin: Renmin chubanshe, 1993), 104.Google Scholar
  12. 15.
    Yuan Tiecheng, “Qian mei guofangbu fubuzhang cheng meiguo wuda shili zuoyou duihua zhengce” [Former U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense said five powers determine the United States’ China policy], Zhongguo qingnien bao [China youth daily], November 4, 2005,–11/04/content_3728121.htm.Google Scholar
  13. 16.
    Bill Gertz, The China Threat: How the People’s Republic Targets America (Washington, DC: Regnery, 2000), 199;Google Scholar
  14. Richard Bernstein and Ross H. Munro, The Coming Conflict with China (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1997).Google Scholar
  15. 17.
    Herbert Yee and Ian Storey, “Introduction,” in The China Threat: Perceptions, Myths, and Reality, eds. Herbert Yee and Ian Storey (New York: Routledge Curzon, 2002), 2–5.Google Scholar
  16. 18.
    Nina Hachigian and James Mulvenon, “A Chance to Get Closer to China,” Los Angeles Times, September 27, 2001.Google Scholar
  17. 19.
    See Yong Deng, “Better Than Power: ‘International Status’ in Chinese Foreign Policy,” in China Rising: Power and Motivation in Chinese Foreign Policy, eds. Yong Deng and Fei-Ling Wang (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005), 51–72.Google Scholar
  18. 20.
    Yan Xuetong, ed., Zhongguo jueqi: Guoji huanjing pinggu [China rises: Evaluation of international environment] (Tianjin: Renmin chubanshe, 1998), 170–74.Google Scholar
  19. 25.
    Evan S. Medeiros and M. Taylor Fravel, “China’s New Diplomacy,” Foreign Affairs 82, no. 6 (November–December 2003), 22–35.Google Scholar
  20. 27.
    Jiang Zemin, “Zai lianheguo qiannian shounao huiyi shang de jianghua” [Speech at the millennial head meeting of the UN], Xinhuawang, September 7, 2000, Scholar
  21. 28.
    Jiang Zemin, “Zhongfei xishou hezuo gongying xinde shiji” [Sino-Africa cooperate to welcome the new century], Xinhuawang, October 10, 2000,–11/24/content_1195633.htm.Google Scholar
  22. 29.
    Hu Jintao, “Shidai mulin youhao gongtong fazhan fanrong—zai mosike guoji guanxi xueyuan de yanjiang” [Befriending neighbors, friendship, mutual development and prosperity for generations—speech delivered at the Moscow’s State Institute of International Relations of MFA of Russia], Zhongguo xinwen wang [China news net], May 29, 2003, Scholar
  23. 31.
    Chu Shulong, “Lengzhanhou zhongguo anquan zhanlue sixiang de fazhan” [The development of China’s strategic thought on security in the post cold-war era], Shijei jingji yu zhengzhi 9 (September 1999): 12.Google Scholar
  24. 32.
    Huang Renwei, “Xin anquan guan yu dongya diqu hezuo jizhi” [New security and regional cooperation mechanism in East Asia], Shijie jingji yanjiu [World economics research], 2000, 25.Google Scholar
  25. 33.
    See Spencer R. Weart, Never at War: Why Democracies Will Not Fight One Another (New Haven, CT.: Yale University Press, 1998).Google Scholar
  26. 35.
    Wang Jing, “Zhongguo yong weihe xingdong chuilian shuaida budui weihe huiyi zhaokai” [To strive for the convening of a meeting for the peace mission by actions], Dongfang ribao, June 19, 2007, Scholar
  27. 36.
    Dong Guozheng and Lu Desheng, “Wojun shouci weihe gongzuo huiyi kaimu” [The first meeting on maintaining peace by our military convenes], Jiefixng junbao, June 19, 2007, 1.Google Scholar
  28. 47.
    Wen, Jiabao, “Zhengfu gongzuo baogao: zai dishijie quanguo renmin daibiao dahui diwuci huiyi shang” [Government work report to the fifth meeting of the tenth national people’s congress], Xinhuawang, March 17, 2007,–03/17/content_5859480_5.htm.Google Scholar
  29. 49.
    He Hongze, “Wenjiabao zongli tan taiwan wenti: guo zhi dashang xiang zhi shenchou” [Premier Wen Jiabao talks about Taiwan issue: A huge sadness for the country and deep sorrow for the society], Huanqiu shibao [Global times], December 10, 2003, 2.Google Scholar
  30. 50.
    Wen Jiabao, “Weile youyi yu hezuo: Zai ribenguo guohui de yanjiang” [For friendship and cooperation: Speech at the Japanese parliament], Xinhuawang, April 12, 2007,–04/12/content_5968135.htm.Google Scholar
  31. 51.
    Zhou Cipu, “Jiangzemin huijian meiguo zhongyiyuan tan zhongmei guanxi” [Jian Zemin meets the U.S. Congressmen talking about Sino-American relations], Renmin ribao, December 1, 2004, 1.Google Scholar
  32. 52.
    Wang Jisi, “Lengjing, lengjing, cai lengjing: Dui dangqian meiguo yu zhongmei guanxi de jidian guancha” [Calm, calm, and calm again: A few observations on the U.S. and Sino-American relations], Guoji jingji pinglun [International economic review], No. 9–10 (2004), Scholar
  33. 53.
    Yang Jiemian, “Heping gongchu wuxiang yuanze he zhongmei guanxi” [Five principles of co-existence and Sino-American relations], Guoji wenti yanjiu [International studies], No. 4 (2004), Scholar
  34. 54.
    Liu Huihua, “Zhuanxing shijie zhong de zhongmei hezuo” [Sino-American cooperation in the changing world], Guoji wenti luntan (International Review) (Winter 2005), Scholar
  35. 57.
    Zhang Zongzhi, “Hujintao hui bushi: gonghu taihai heping” [Hu Jintao meets Bush: Protecting the peace in the Taiwan Strait together], Lienhe bao (United daily, Taipei), September 15, 2005, Scholar
  36. 58.
    Glenn Kessler, “Powell Strongly Defends Bush’s Foreign Policy,” Washington Post, September 6, 2003, p. A15.Google Scholar
  37. 59.
    The original wording is “of the major and emerging powers, China has the greatest potential to compete militarily with the United States and field disruptive military technologies that could over time off set traditional U.S. military advantages absent U.S. counter strategies”; see U.S. Department of Defense, Quadrennial Defense Review Report, February 6, 2006, 29. Scholar
  38. 61.
    Zhang Ruezuang, “Women weishenmo buleng jieshou zhongmei guanxi lishi zuehao de shuofa?” [Why couldn’t we accept the statement that Sino-U.S. relations are at their best?], Wenhui bao, September 7, 2005, Scholar
  39. 63.
    Iain Johnston, “Is China a Status Quo Power?” International Security 7, no. 4 (Spring 2003), 49.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Suisheng Zhao 2008

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations