Clientelist Democracy in Comparative Perspective
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By the late 1990s, attaching an adjective to democracy had become something of a cottage industry in political science. David Collier and Steven Levitsky warned that the flourishing of “democracy with adjectives” could lead to “definitional gerrymandering” resulting from the introduction of a new definition every time a scholar encountered a somewhat anomalous case. Collier and Levitsky (1997: 435) were particularly concerned that the creation of these subtypes of democracy could lead to conceptual stretching to cases that are less than democratic in that the application of an adjective has not always been intended to distinguish between different types of democracy but rather different degrees of democracy, as was arguably the case with Fredric Schaffer’s (1998) conception of a Wolof form of demokrasi.
KeywordsCivil Liberty Liberal Democracy Political Authority Regime Type Political Equality
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