Telling Stories from Hemingway’s FBI File: Conspiracy, Paranoia, and Masculinity
As he did with so many other writers, J. Edgar Hoover, the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation from 1924–1972, authorized and contributed to a hefty confidential file on Ernest Hemingway. Made available to the public for the past two decades, this file runs 127 pages, with approximately 15 pages withheld or mostly blacked out “in the interest of national defense.” The file begins October 8, 1942 and ends January 25, 1974, almost 13 years after Hemingway’s death and two years after Hoover’s. However, references in the file indicate that the FBI kept tabs on Hemingway as early as the 1930s, by which time he had established himself as a celebrated expatriate writer and “modern master” (Raeburn 17). In short, for 40 years, FBI agents gathered confidential reports on the activities of Hemingway.
KeywordsModernist Writer Male Artist Famous Writer Virile Masculinity Literary Celebrity
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