In the same year that U.S. Helsinki Watch was created, another NGO funded by the Ford Foundation was being formally established in Paris, France, and, similar to Helsinki Watch, was to focus upon the non-Soviet communist countries in Eastern Europe. Significant differences characterized the two operations. While the first was designed to maximize public attention upon how the human rights provisions incorporated in the recently adopted Helsinki Final Act were being violated by the communist regimes, the Paris-based operation totally avoided all public attention to what it was doing and, indeed, what was occurring in the area. In fact, the NGO, unlike virtually any NGO in the Western world, was designed to operate in as quiet and unpublic a manner as possible.


Eastern European Country Ford Foundation Travel Grant Cultural Freedom Paris Office 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 11.
    Peter Coleman, The Liberal Conspiracy: The Congress for Cultural Freedom and the Struggle for the Mind of Postwar Europe (New York: The Free Press, 1989), 1–2Google Scholar
  2. 15.
    Volker R. Berghahn, American Intelligentsia and the Cold War in Europe (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002), 269Google Scholar

Copyright information

© William Korey 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Korey

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations