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Cites are much more difficult to characterize linguistically than are rural hamlets; variation in language and patterns of change are much more obvious in cities, e.g., in family structures, employment, and opportunities for social advancement or decline. Migration, both in and out of cities, is also usually a potent linguistic factor. Cities also spread their influence far beyond their limits and their importance should never be underestimated in considering such matters as the standardization and diffusion of languages.
(Wardhaugh, 1998: 46–7)
KeywordsSocial Reality Department Store Linguistic Competency Linguistic Behaviour Individual Speaker
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