China’s Ideational Challenge
Images are central to China’s situation for the twenty-first century. IR ‘constructivism’ theory would not be surprised by how ‘China’s greatest strategic threat today is its national image’; for ‘this famously inward looking nation is vulnerable to how it is seen abroad … how China is perceived by other nations — and the underlying reality that perception reflects — will determine the future of Chinese development and reform’ (Ramo 2007: 12). Moreover, ‘tactical’ challenges such as the FDI that the country attracts, the willingness of other nations to provide educational and technological aid and the role of Chinese businesses in international markets, ‘all share a basis in national image’ (ibid.). But in opening up to the world, the multilateral arena and global markets, China’s ideational appeal is a critical issue for the twenty-first century, be it in terms of ideology projected by the Chinese state or be it in terms of culture associated with China and at times used by the state.
KeywordsInternational Relation Internet User Soft Power International Order State Sovereignty
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