Tony Sewell, (1996), Black Masculinities and Schooling, Trentham Books, London
Louise Archer, (2003), ‘Race’, Masculinity and Schooling: Muslim Boys and Education, Buckingham, Open University Press.
Stuart Hall, (1992), ‘New Ethnicities’ in James Donald and Ali Rattansi (eds) ‘Race’, Culture and Difference, London, Sage and Open University
Homi Bhabha, (1994), The Location of Culture, London and New York, Routledge
Paul Gilroy, (1993), The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness, London, Verso.
Michael Awkward, (1995), Negotiating Difference: Race, Gender and the Politics of Positionality, Chicago, University of Chicago Press
Daniel Boyarin, (1997), Unheroic Conduct: The Rise of Heterosexuality and the Invention of the Jewish Man, Berkeley, University of California Press
Warren Rosenberg, (2001), Legacy of Rage: Jewish Masculinity, Violence, and Culture, Massachusetts, University of Massachusetts Press.
Venise T. Berry and Carmen L. Manning-Miller, (1996), (eds) Mediated Messages and African-American Culture: Contemporary Issues, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications
Phillip Brian Harper, (1996), Are We Not Men? Masculine Anxiety and the Problem of African-American Identity, New York, Oxford University Press
Sheila J. Wise, (2001), ‘Redefining Black Masculinity and Manhood: Successful Black Gay Men Speak Out’, Journal of African American Men 5, Spring, pp. 3–22
Maurice O. Wallace, (2002), Constructing the Black Masculine: Identity and Ideality in African American Men’s Literature and Culture, 1775–1995, Durham, NC, Duke University Press
Patricia Hill, (2004), Black Sexual Politics: African Americans, Gender, and the New Racism, New York, Routledge.
See especially Hazel Carby, (1998), Race Men, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.
Samuel R. Delany, (1993), The Motion of Light in Water: Sex and Science Fiction Writing in the East Village 1960–1965, New York, Masquerade Books
Essex Hemphill, (1991), (ed.), Brother to Brother: New Writings by Black Gay Men, Boston, Alyson.
R.W. Connell, (2005), ‘Change among the Gatekeepers: Men, Masculinities, and Gender Equality in the Global Arena’, Signs, 30:3, Spring, pp. 1801–25.
Connell, ibid, p.1811; see also Robert Morrell, (1998), ‘Of Boys and Men: Masculinity and Gender in Southern African Studies’, Journal of Southern African Studies, 24 (4), pp. 605–30
Mai Ghoussoub, (2000), ‘Chewing Gum, Insatiable Women and Foreign Enemies: Male Fears and the Arab Media’, in Mai Ghoussoub and Emma Sinclair-Webb, (ed.) Imagined Masculinities: Male Identity and Culture in the Middle East, pp. 227–35, London, Saqi
Matthew C. Gutmann’s, (2002), The Romance of Democracy: Compliant Defiance in Contemporary Mexico, Berkeley, University of California Press.
Nasra Hassan, (2001), ‘An Arsenal of Believers: The men who became “human bombs”’, The New Yorker, November 19, pp.36–41
Mark Juergensmeyer, (2000), Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise ofReligious Violence, Berkeley, University of California Press.
James Baldwin, as quoted in Fern Maya Eckman, (1968), The Furious Passage of James Baldwin, pp. 32–3, London, Michael Joseph.
Joseph Conrad, (1986), [First published 1902], Heart of Darkness, p. 105–6, Harmondsworth, Penguin.
Chinua Achebe, (1988), Hopes and Impediments: Selected Essays 1965–87, p. 11, London, Heinemann.
Quoted in Dorothy Hammond and Alta Jablow, (1970), The Africa That Never Was: Four Centuries of British Writings About Africa, p. 23, New York, Twayne Press.
William Blake, (1965), [First published 1789 ], ‘The Little Black Boy’ in (ed.), Max Plowman, William Blake: Poems and Prophecies, p. 10, London, Everyman.
Patrick Brantlinger, (1987), ‘Victorians and Africans: The Geneology of the Myth of the Dark Continent’ in Henry Louis Gates Jr (ed.), Race, Writing and Difference, p. 186, London, Univ. of Chicago Press.
Robin Blackburn, (1988), The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery 1776–1848, p. 436, London, Verso.
James Walvin, (1987), ‘Symbols of Moral Superiority: slavery, sport and the changing world order, 1800–1950’ in J.A. Mangan and James Walvin (eds), Manliness and Morality, London, Manchester University Press.
As quoted in Catherine Hall, (1989), ‘The Economy of Intellectual Prestige: Thomas Carlyle, John Stuart Mill and the Case of Governor Eyre’ in Cultural Critique, Summer.
H.R. Haggard, (1979) [First published 1885], King Solomon’s Mines from King Solomon’s Mines, She, Allan Quatermain, London, Octopus Press.
Joel Kovel, (1988), [First published 1970], White Racism: A Psycho-history, p.xcix, London, Free Association Books.
Graham Greene, (1948), Journey Without Maps, London, Pan.
Mrinalini Sinha, (1987), ‘Gender and Imperialism: Colonial Policy and the Ideology of Moral Imperialism in late nineteenth-century Bengal’ Michael Kimmel (ed.), Changing Men, London, Sage.
James Baldwin, (1985), [First published 1963], The Fire Next Time in The Price of the Ticket, p. 375, London, Michael Joseph.
Quoted in Robert Altman, (1981), Coming Out in the Seventies, p. 158, Boston, Alyson Publications
Robert Altman, (1981), Coming Out in the Seventies, p. 158, Boston, Alyson Publications.
Frantz Fanon, (1970), [First published 1952], Black Skins, White Masks, p. 118, London, Paladin.
Roger Bastide, (1972), ‘Dusky Venus, Black Apollo’ in Paul Baxter and Basil Sansom (eds), Race and Social Difference, p. 187, Harmondsworth, Penguin.
Geoffrey Summerfield, (1984), Introduction to Richard Wright, Black Boy, p.v, London, Longman.
B.W. Beacroft and M.A. Smale, (1982), The Making of America, p. 104, London, Longman.
Robert Staples, (1982), Black Masculinity: The Black Male’s Role in American Society, p. 62, San Francisco, Black Scholar Press.
Norman Mailer, (1960), ‘The White Negro’, in Protest, p. 304, London, Panther.
Lynne Segal, (1987), Is the Future Female?: Troubled Thoughts on Contemporary Feminism, chapter 1, London, Virago.
Eldridge Cleaver, (1969), Soul on Ice, p. 125, London, Cape.
Mtutuzeli Matshoba, (1979), Call Me Not a Man, p. 18, London, Rex Collings.
Chester Himes, (1986), [First published 1945], If He Hollers Let Him Go, p.2, p. 4, London, Pluto Press.
Kenneth Clark, (1965), Dark Ghetto, p. 64, New York, Harper.
William Grier and Price Cobbs, (1968), Black Rage, p. 149, New York, Bantam Books.
Charles Silberman, (1964), Crisis in Black and White, p. 155, New York, Random House.
Daniel Moyniham, (1965), The Negro Family: The Case for National Action, Washington, U.S. Department of Labor.
Quoted in David Widgery, (1979), ‘Baldwin’ in Achilles Heel, 3, p. 34.
Lillian Rubin, (1987), Quiet Rage, p. 242, London, Faber & Faber.
Bell Hooks, (1989), Talking Back: Thinking Feminist–Thinking Black, p. 242, London, Sheba.
William Strickland, (1989), ‘Sleaze: How Bipartisan Racism Defiled the 1988 Presidential Campaign’, in Zeta Magazine, Jan. p.10.
Bobby Seale, (1970), Seize the Time: The Story of the Black Panther Party, London, Arrow Books.
LeRoi Jones, (1966), Home, p. 164, New York, William Morrow & Co.
Stuart Hall et al., (1978), Policing the Crisis, London, Macmillan.
Dick Hebdige, (1979), Subculture: The Meaning of Style, p. 37, London, Methuen.
Paul Gilroy, (1987), There Ain’t No Black in the Union Jack, pp. 164–5, London, Hutchinson.
Beverley Bryan, Stella Dadzie and Suzanne Scafe, (1985), The Heart of the Race: Black Women’s Lives in Britain, p. 219, London, Virago.
Ken Pryce, (1979), Endless Pressure, p. 53, Bristol, Bristol Classical Press.
Errol Lawrence, (1982), ‘In the Abundance of Water the Fool is Thirsty: Sociology and Black Pathology’, in CCCS (eds), The Empire Strikes Back, London; Hutchinson
Paul Gilroy and Errol Lawrence,(1982), ‘Two-Tone Britain: White and Black Youth and the Politics of Anti-Racism’ in Philip Cohen and Harwant Bains (eds) Multi-Racist Britain, London, Macmillan.
Toni Cade, (1970), ‘On the Issue of Roles’, in Toni Cade (ed.), The Black Woman, p. 102, New York, Signet.
Toni Cade Bambara, (1972), Gorilla, My Love, New York, Random House
Toni Cade Bambara(1977), The Sea Birds are Still Alive, New York, Random House
Toni Cade Bambara(1980), The Salt Eaters, New York, Random House.
Paule Marshall, (1981), [First published 1959], Brown Girl, Brownstones, New York, The Feminist Press.
Toni Morrison, (1971), ‘What the Black Woman thinks About Women’s Lib’ in The New York Times Magazine, August 22.
Zora Neale Hurston, (1986), [First published 1937], Their Eyes Were Watching God, XIII, London, Virago
Elaine Feinstein, (1985), Bessie Smith, p. 97, London, Viking.
Alice Walker, (1970), The Third Life of Grange Copeland, London, Women’s Press, p. 94.
Alice Walker, (1982), The Colour Purple, London, Women’s Press.
Michele Wallace, (1979), Black Macho and The Myth of the Superwoman, London, John Calder.
Audre Lorde, (1983), ‘My Words Will Be There’, in (ed.) Mari Evans, Black Women Writers, p. 267, London, Pluto.
Combahee River Collective, (1983), ‘Collective Statement’ in Barbara Smith (ed.), Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology, New York, Kitchen Table/Women of Color Press.
Ntozake Shange, (1980), ‘coming to terms’ in Mary Helen Washington (ed.), Midnight Birds, p. 254, New York, Anchor Books.
Rhonda Cobham and Merle Collins, (1986), Watchers and Seekers: Creative Writings by Black Women in Britain, p. 30, London, Women’s Press.
Joan Riley, (1985), The Unbelonging, London, Women’s Press.
Grace Nicholls, (1986), ‘Even Tho’, in Cobham and Collins, op.cit., p.65.
Ishmael Reed, (1989), Reckless Eyeballing, London, Allison & Busby.
Langston Hughes, (1986), [First published 1940], The Big Sea: An Autobiography, London, Pluto Press
James Baldwin, (1984), [First published 1962], Another Country, London, Black Swan.
Joseph Beam, (1986), ‘Brother to Brother: Words From the Heart’, in Joseph Beam (ed.), p.239, In the Life: A Black Gay Anthology.
Richard Pryor, (1971), In Concert, (Video).
See, for example, Lenny Henry, (1989), ‘My Hero: Lenny Henry on Richard Pryor’, The Independent Magazine, 22 July, p.54.
Isaac Julien, Looking For Langston, Film shown on ITV Channel 4 as part of the series Out on Tuesday, (March 27 1989).
Stuart Hall, (1987), ‘Minimal Selves’ in Indentity: The Real Me, London, ICA Documents 6
Stuart Hall, (1987), ‘New Ethnicities’ in Black Film British Cinema, p. 27, London, ICA Documents.
Essex Hemphill, (1986), Conditions: Poem by Essex Hemphill, Washington, BeBop Books.