Instruments of Expression (II): Referendums



So far, this book has addressed the allegation that popular participation and interest in politics are declining in representative liberal-democracies. We have also seen how a growing sense of powerlessness and dissatisfaction with political parties has developed alongside an extraordinary increase in extra-parliamentary activity that might channel its frustration through parties, but is progressively more likely to be the source of social group mobilisation and direct action. The key here is the feeling of disappointment and irritation with representative democracy in particular; how might citizens experience the kind of direct democracy that so engaged the ancients?


Political Communication Direct Democracy European Economic Community Representative Democracy Federal Constitution 
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Copyright information

© Gary D. Rawnsley 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of NottinghamNingboChina (UNNC)

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