The Two-sided Attitude of the Church



Founded as it was on Scripture and the Church Fathers, particularly Saint Basil, the principle of an absolute ban on usury remained intact until the twelfth century. The prevalent theological reasoning was based on fraternity and natural morality, although the thinking was philosophically vague, the rational justification quite summary, and definition of types hardly touched upon.


Thirteenth Century Rural Economy Twelfth Century Consumer Credit Rational Justification 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. BRAUDEL, F. Civilization and capitalism, New York: Harper & Row, 1981–4Google Scholar
  2. CARDINI, F. ‘L’argento e i sogni: cultura, immaginario, orizzonti mentali’, in Banchieri e mercanti di Siena, Monte dei Paschi di Siena, 1987.Google Scholar
  3. CASSANDRO, M. ‘La banca senese nei secoli XIII e XIV,’ in Banchieri emercanti di Siena, Monte dei Paschi di Siena, 1987.Google Scholar
  4. CHAUNU, P. Le temps des réformes, Brusells: Complexe, 1984.Google Scholar
  5. CREMONA, D. ‘Carità e interesse’ in San Antonino da Firenze, Aleph, 1991.Google Scholar
  6. DANTE, ALIGHIERI The Divine Comedy, Hell, London: Penguin Classics, 1949.Google Scholar
  7. DEMPSEY, B.W. Interest and Usury, London: Dennis Dobson Ltd, 1948.Google Scholar
  8. DUBY, G. The early growth of the European Economy:Warriors and Peasants from the 7th to the 12th Century, Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  9. DUBY, G. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, Columbia:University of South Carolina Press, 1976 (©1968).Google Scholar
  10. DUBY, G. Histoire de la France, Paris: Larousse, coll. ‘Références’, 1986.Google Scholar
  11. JULIEN-LABRUYERE, F. Paysans charentais, preface by J. LE GOFF, LaRochelle Rupella-where, 1982.Google Scholar
  12. LE BRAS, G. ‘La doctrine ecclésiastique de l’usure à l’époque classique (XIIe-XVesiècle)’, Dictionnaire de Théologie Catholique.Google Scholar
  13. LE GOFF, J. Marchands et banquiers du Moyen Age, Paris: ‘Que sais-je?’, P.U.F.,1956.Google Scholar
  14. LE GOFF, J. The Birth of Purgatory, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.Google Scholar
  15. LE GOFF, J. Intellectuals in the Middle Ages, Oxford and Cambridge, MA:Blackwell, 1993.Google Scholar
  16. LE GOFF, J. Your Money or your life, New York and Cambridge, MA: Zone books(Distributed by MIT Press) 1988.Google Scholar
  17. LE GOFF, J. (ed.), Histoire de la France religieuse, Vol. I, Paris: Le Seuil, 1988.Google Scholar
  18. MAGINI, M. La cassa di risparmio di Firenze, Florence: Olschki, 1992.Google Scholar
  19. NOONAN, J.T. The scholastic analysis of usury, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1957.Google Scholar
  20. ORIGO, I. The merchant of Prato, The daily life in an Italian city,Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1992.Google Scholar
  21. PERNOUD, R. Histoire de la bourgeoisie en France, Paris: Le Seuil, coll.‘Points’, 1981.Google Scholar
  22. POLIAKOV, L. Les banquiers juifs et le Saint-Siège, Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1967.Google Scholar
  23. ROOVER, R. de La pensée économique des scolastiques, Paris: J. Vrin, 1971.Google Scholar
  24. ROOVER, R. de Business, banking and economic thought in late medieval and early modern Europe, Chicago: University Chicago Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  25. SCHUMPETER, J.A. History of Economic Analysis, London: George Allen &Unwin Ltd, 1963.Google Scholar
  26. TAVENEAUX, R. Jansénisme et prêt à intérêt, Paris: J. Vrin, 1977.Google Scholar
  27. TAWNEY, R. H. Religion and the Rise of Capitalism, New York: Penguin Books,1984 (© 1926).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© La Fondation Cetelem 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cetelem Professor of Economics Université Libre de LilleFrance
  2. 2.International CEO, member of the Board of CetelemFrance

Personalised recommendations