From Civil Rights to Afrocentrism and Beyond
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The previous chapter ended by pointing to the conclusions drawn by the Kerner Commission on the disadvantaged state of African-American communities and their schools in the Northern cities of the US, and the prescription for future action that the Commission recommended. This chapter carries the story forward by examining the way policy and practice developed in two main areas. One of the key education recommendations of the Kerner Commission was that segregation in schools should be reduced, so this will be our first topic to examine. We will begin by looking at the impact of policy in this area and the controversy, particularly due to busing, it engendered. The second issue on which we will concentrate lies in efforts to promote equity between the racial communities, with specific reference to equal opportunity in employment. Quite apart from the importance of this issue in its own right, it is examined here because educational achievement is closely linked to labour market opportunity, and many of the debates over methods of achieving equality centred round educational practices. Thus, for example, many of the key Supreme Court decisions regarding affirmative action dealt with access to educational or training opportunities. Towards the end of the chapter we will flag some of the issues that are of contemporary importance.
KeywordsSchool Board Residential Segregation Supreme Court Decision School Authority Desegregation Plan
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