Skip to main content

’Late Industrializers’ and the Development of the Welfare State

  • Chapter
Social Policy in a Development Context

Part of the book series: Social Policy in a Development Context ((SPDC))

Abstract

Industrialization has long been recognized as a key component in the emergence and development of state welfare regimes. The classic source in the comparative literature is Wilensky’s (1975) The Welfare State and Equality. Drawing on the earlier work of Cutright (1965), Aaron (1967) and Pryor (1968), Wilensky concluded that ‘economic growth and its demographic and bureaucratic outcomes are the root cause of the general emergence of the welfare state’ (1975: p. xiii). According to this account, the origins of the welfare state lay in secular changes associated with the broad process of industrialization and, particularly, the breakdown of traditional forms of social provision and family life. These changes included economic growth (and the greater affluence it generated), growth in population (especially of an aged and urban population), the developed division of labour, the creation of a landless working class (and, subsequently, its political mobilization), the rise of cyclical unemployment, changing patterns of family and community life and (at a somewhat later stage) industry’s increasing need of a reliable, healthy and literate workforce. The empirical work of Cutright, upon which Wilensky drew, suggested that ‘the degree of social security coverage is most powerfully correlated with its level of economic development’ (Cutright 1965: 537). Wilensky’s own empirical work led him to conclude that more than 85 per cent of the international variance in social security effort was to be explained by economic development, combined with the dependent effects of the proportion of aged in the population and the age of the social security system. He concluded that ‘there is not much variance left to explain’ (Wilensky 1975: 22–5, 47).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 79.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 99.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

Bibliography

  • Aaron, H. J. (1967) ‘Social Security: International Comparisons’. In O. Eckstein. (ed.), Studies in the Economics of Income Maintenance. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.

    Google Scholar 

  • Alber, J. (1982) Von Armenhaus zum Wohlfahrtsstaat. Frankfurt (Germany): Campus.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bairoch, P. (1982) ‘International Industrialization Levels from 1750 to 1980’, Journal of European Economic History, 11, 269–310.

    Google Scholar 

  • Baldwin, P. (1990) The Politics of Social Solidarity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Barbone, L., and Sanchez B., L.-A. (1999). Pensions and Social Security in sub-Saharan Africa: Issues and Options. Washington, DC: World Bank.

    Google Scholar 

  • Castles, F. (1985) The Working Class and Welfare. Wellington, NZ: Allen and Unwin.

    Google Scholar 

  • Castles, F., Gerritsen, R., and Vowles, J. (1996) The Great Experiment. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.

    Google Scholar 

  • Collier, D., and Messick, R. E. (1975) ‘Prerequisites Versus Diffusion: Testing Alternative Explanations of Social Security Adoption’, American Political Science Review, 69, 1299–1315.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cutright, P. (1965) ‘Political Structure, Economic Development, and National Social Security Programs’, American Journal of Sociology, 70, 537–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • De Swaan, A. (1988) In Care of the State. Cambridge: Polity Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dore, R. (1973) British Factory, Japanese Factory. London: Allen and Unwin.

    Google Scholar 

  • ECLAC (2001). Social Expenditure in Latin America: Overview of a Decade in Social Panorama of Latin America 2000–2001. Santiago: ECLAC.

    Google Scholar 

  • ECLAC (2002). Globalization and Social Development. Santiago: ECLAC.

    Google Scholar 

  • Esping-Andersen, G. (1985) Politics Against Markets. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Esping-Andersen, G. (1990) The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Oxford: Polity Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Esping-Andersen, G. (1997) ‘Hybrid or Unique? The Japanese Welfare State between Europe and America’, Journal of European Social Policy, 7, 79–89.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Flora, P. (1986). Growth to Limits. Berlin: De Gruyter.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flora, P., and Heidenheimer, A. J. (1981). The Development of Welfare States in Europe and America. New Brunswick: Transaction.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frank, A. G. (1967) Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America. New York: Monthly Review Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Freedom House (2002). Freedom in the World: Country Ratings 1972–73 to 2001–2. London: Freedom House.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garrett, G. (1998) Partisan Politics in the Global Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Gerschenkron, A. (1962) Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goodman, R., and Peng, I. (1996) ‘The East Asian Welfare States’. In G. Esping-Andersen (ed.), Welfare States in Transition (pp. 192–224). London: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goodman, R., White, G., and Kwon, H.-J. (1998). The East Asian Welfare Regime Model: Welfare Orientalism and the State. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gough, I. (2000). Welfare Regimes in East Asia. Bath: University of Bath.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gough, I. (2001) ‘Globalization and Regional Welfare Regimes’, Global Social Policy, 1, 163–89.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gould, A. (1993) Capitalist Welfare Systems. London: Longman.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hage, J., Hanneman, R., and Gargan, E. T. (1989) State Responsiveness and State Activism. London: Unwin Hyman.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haggard, S. (1990) Pathways from the Periphery. New York: Cornell University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harrison, D. (1990) The Sociology of Modernization and Development. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Holliday, I. (2000) ‘Productivist Welfare Capitalism: Social Policy in East Asia’, Political Studies, 48, 706–23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hubbard, M. (2001) ‘Attacking Poverty — a strategic dilemma for the World Bank’, Journal of International Development, 13(3), 293–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jacobs, D. (1998) Social Welfare Systems in East Asia: a Comparative Analysis including Private Welfare. London: LSE, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jacobs, D. (2000) ‘Low Social Expenditures on Social Welfare: Do East Asian Countries Have a Secret?’ International Journal of Social Welfare, 9, 2–16.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johansen, L. N. (1985) ‘Denmark’. In P. Flora (ed.), Limits to Growth. Berlin: De Gruyter.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jones, C. (1993) ‘The Pacific Challenge: Confucian Welfare States’, New Perspectives on the Welfare State in Europe. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuhnle, S. (1981) ‘The Growth of Social Insurance Programs in Scandinavia’. In P. Flora and A. J. Heidenheimer (eds), The Development of Welfare States in Europe and America New Brunswick: Transaction.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuhnle, S., and Hort, S. E. (2000) ‘The Coming of East and South-East Asian Welfare States’, Journal of European Social Policy, 10, 162–84.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuznets, S. (1966) Modern Economic Growth: Rate, Structure, and Spread. New Haven: Yale University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kyo-seong, K. (2001) ‘Determinants of the Timing of Social Insurance Legislation among 18 OECD Countries’, International Journal of Social Welfare, 10, 2–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lee, H. K. (1999) ‘Globalization and the Emerging Welfare State — the Experience of South Korea’, International Journal of Social Welfare, 8, 23–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Levine, D. (1983) ‘Social Democrats, Socialism, and Social Insurance: Germany and Denmark, 1918–1933’. In R. F. Tomasson (ed.), The Welfare State 1883–1983: Comparative Social Research. London: Jai Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mesa-Lago, C. (1991) ‘Social Security in Latin America and the Caribbean’. In E. Ahmad, et al. (ed.), Social Security in Developing Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mingat, A. (1998) ‘The Strategy Used by High-Performing Asian Economies in Education’, World Development, 26, 695–715.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mkandawire, T. (2001) Social Policy in a Development Context. Geneva: UNRISD.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nitsch, M., and Schwarzer, H. (2000) ‘Recent Developments in Financing Social Security in Latin America’, Issues in Social Protection. Geneva: ILO.

    Google Scholar 

  • O’Connor, J. (1988) ‘Convergence or Divergence? Change in Welfare Effort in OECD Countries, 1960–1980’, European Journal of Political Research, 16, 277–99.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • O’Connor, J., and Brym, R. J. (1988) ‘Public Welfare Expenditure in OECD Countries: Towards a Reconciliation of Inconsistent Findings’, British Journal of Sociology, 39, 47–68.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pierson, C. (1998) Beyond the Welfare State? Cambridge: Polity.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pierson, C. (2001) Hard Choices. Cambridge: Polity.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pierson, C. and Castles, F. (1996) ‘A New Convergence? Recent Policy Developments in the UK, Australia and New Zealand’, Policy and Politics, 24(3) 233–45.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pryor, F. L. (1968) Public Expenditures in Communist and Capitalist Nations. Homewood, IL: Irwin.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ramesh, M., and Asher, M. G. (2000) Welfare Capitalism in Southeast Asia: Social Security, Health and Education Policies. New York: Macmillan.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Reynolds, L. G. (1985) Economic Growth in the Third World 1850–1980. New Haven: Yale University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rimlinger, G. V. (1974) Welfare Policy and Industrialization in Europe, America and Russia. London: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rose, R., and Shiratori, R. (1986) The Welfare State East and West. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rostow, W. W. (1978) The World Economy: History and Prospect. London: University of Texas Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schneider, S. K. (1982) ‘The Sequential Development of Social Programs in Eighteen Welfare States’, Comparative Social Research, 5, 195–219.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skocpol, T. (1992) Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: the Political Origins of Social Policy in the US. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skocpol, T. (1995) Social Policy in the US. New Haven: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skocpol, T., and Ikenberry, J. (1983) ‘The Political Formation of the American Welfare State’. In R. F. Tomasson (ed.), Comparative Social Research: the Welfare State 1883–1983. Greenwich, CT: Jai Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stephens, J. (1979) The Transition from Capitalism to Socialism. London: Macmillan.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • UK Labour Party (2001) General Election Manifesto: 2001. London: Labour Party.

    Google Scholar 

  • UNDP (2002) Human Development Report 2002: Deepening Democracy in a Fragmented World. Washington, DC: UNDP.

    Google Scholar 

  • UNICEF-ICDC (1997) Children at Risk in Eastern and Central Europe. Florence: UNICEF.

    Google Scholar 

  • Uusitalo, H. (1984) ‘Comparative Research on the Determinants of the Welfare State: the State of the Art’, European Journal of Political Research, 12, 403–22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vartiainen, J. (1995) ‘The State and Structural Change: What can be Learnt from the Successful Late Industrializes?’ In H.-J. Chang and R. Rowthorn (eds), The Role of the State in Economic Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vasoo, S., and Lee, J. (2001) ‘Singapore: Social Development, Housing and the Central Provident Fund’, International Journal of Social Welfare, 10, 276–83.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Von Braun, J. (1991) ‘Social Security in Sub-Saharan Africa’. In E. Ahmad et al. (ed.), Social Security in Developing Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wade, R. (1995) ‘Resolving the State-Market Dilemma in East Asia’. In H.-J. Chang and R. Rowthorn (eds), The Role of the State in Economic Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • White, G., and Goodman, R. (1998) ‘Welfare Orientalism and the Search for an East Asian Model’. In R. Goodman, G. White and H.-J. Kwon (eds), The East Asian Welfare Model – Welfare Orientalism and the State. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilensky, H. (1975) The Welfare State and Equality. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • World Bank (1993) The East Asian Miracle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • World Bank (1994) Averting the Old Age Crisis: Policies to Protect the Old and Promote Growth. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • World Bank (2001) World Development Report 2000/1: Attacking Poverty. Washington, DC: World Bank.

    Google Scholar 

  • World Bank (2002) World Development Indicators 2002. Washington, DC: World Bank.

    Book  Google Scholar 

Download references

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Copyright information

© 2004 United Nations Research Institute for Social Development

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Pierson, C. (2004). ’Late Industrializers’ and the Development of the Welfare State. In: Mkandawire, T. (eds) Social Policy in a Development Context. Social Policy in a Development Context. Palgrave Macmillan, London. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230523975_10

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics