Human Resources and Market Reforms
In this chapter we set our discussion of occupational citizenship in the context of the challenges posed by the market reforms of the 1970s and 1980s. We first look at the general debate about labour flexibility, and then discuss the institutional issues raised by occupational citizenship in two areas where this notion may be said to have important efficiency functions. These are the advancement of labour freedom; and the development of human resources. These areas also demonstrate important ways that internal and external labour markets are linked. We then provide a brief review of the labour market reforms of the Pinochet period, considering local labour institutions first and then reforms to public policy and the role of the state. These reforms may be seen as representing an attempt to perfect a neo-classical model of labour markets where the economic component in civil rights prevails. Finally, we discuss the specific challenges to labour institutions faced in Chile by 1990, and suggest the need for an analytical framework that provides some scope for linking political dimensions of citizenship to the social and institutional problems involved in the development of human resources. The study of occupational citizenship provides one possible framework.
KeywordsLabour Market Human Resource Labour Relation Market Reform Labour Market Institution
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