Citizenship and Democratization
Citizenship is an elusive concept. The ideal of social inclusion that it espouses is timeless. However, the substantive meaning of citizenship varies as political and material conditions change. Our understanding of citizenship therefore needs periodic revision. In this chapter we first provide working definitions of different forms of citizenship. We then set the contraction of social citizenship since the 1970s in the context of earlier formative periods. We argue that the loss of the idea of a mainstream divides the post-war phase from later efforts to restore social rights. This leads us to consider issues of methodology in the analysis of the development of citizenship. It is suggested that a stages approach is inadequate. Not one, but several factors independently shape the form that social citizenship takes. Analyzing the interplay between key aspects of economic governance allows us to identify the national framework of occupational citizenship and to assess the Chilean case in a comparative light.
KeywordsLabour Market Welfare State Political Sphere Political Democratization Political Democracy
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