The European Defence Community — Precursor to the CFSP?

  • Simon Duke
Part of the St Antony’s Series book series


Ideas of a federal Europe enjoy a long history of intellectual endeavour. The notion of a unified and prosperous Europe is one that came to the fore in the mid-nineteenth century. Federal ideals though remained hostage to the balance of power politics of the day, being first tarnished by the Crimean War and then seemingly smashed by the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 and the collapse of the Concert of Europe. The shock of the First World War, perhaps surprisingly, evoked few suggestions of federal solutions to Europe’s parlous security, with the notable exception of the Briand Plan. In this century the federal concept found its most eloquent proponent in Count Richard Coudenhove-Kalegri, whose 1923 calls for European federalism in his ‘Manifeste Paneuropéen’ struck a chord in post-World War II Europe dominated by the US and the Soviet Union.1


European Unity Federal Republic Foreign Minister European Security Common Defence 
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Notes and References

  1. Quoted in Altiero Spinelli, ‘European Union and the Resistance’, in Ghita Ionescu, The New Politics of European Integration (London: Macmillan, 1972), p. 5.Google Scholar
  2. Jean Monnet, Mémoires (Arthème Fayard, 1976), p. 427.Google Scholar
  3. Sir Anthony Eden, Full Circle (London: Cassell, 1960), pp. 29–30.Google Scholar
  4. François Duchêne, Jean Monnet: The First Statesman of Independence (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1994), p. 227.Google Scholar
  5. Quoted in Phil Williams, The Senate and U.S. Troops in Europe (London: Macmillan, 1985), pp. 37–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Konrad Adenauer, Memoirs 1945–53 (Chicago, Henry Regenery Company, 1965), p. 284.Google Scholar
  7. Dean Acheson, Present at the Creation: My Years in the State Department (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1969), p. 443.Google Scholar
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  9. Draft Treaty Embodying the Statute of the European Political Community (Luxembourg: 1953), Article 2. Cited in Hans A. Schmitt, The Path to European Union: From the Marshall Plan to the Common Market (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1962), p. 211.Google Scholar
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  11. Leonard Mosley, Dulles: A biography of Eleanor, Allen, and John Foster Dulles and their family network (New York: The Dial Press/James Wade, 1978), p. 324.Google Scholar
  12. Ernst Haas, The Uniting of Europe: Political, Social, and Economic Forces 1950–7 (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1968), pp. 125–6.Google Scholar
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  14. Eden, Full Circle, p.148. See also Dwight D. Eisenhower, The White House Years: Mandate for Change 1953–56 (New York: Doubleday and Company Ltd., 1963), p. 402.Google Scholar
  15. Willem van Eekelen persuasively argues that there are reasons to doubt the authenticity of Eden’s idea since the same suggestion had been made prior to this by Sir Frank Roberts to the Foreign Secretary and also by Harold Macmillan, then Housing Minister. See Willem van Eekelen, Debating European Security 1948–98 (The Hague: Sdu Publishers, 1998), p. 8.Google Scholar
  16. Alfred Cahen, ‘The Emergence and Role of the Western European Union’, in Michael Clarke and Rod Hague (eds), European Defence Co-operation: America, Britain and NATO (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990), p. 55.Google Scholar
  17. G. Wyn Rees, The Western European Union: Between Trans-Atlantic Solidarity and European Integration (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1998), p. 9.Google Scholar
  18. Alfred Cahen, The Western European Union and NATO: Building a European Defence Identity within the Context of Alliance Solidarity (London: Brassey’s, 1989), p. 5.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Simon Duke 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simon Duke
    • 1
  1. 1.European Institute of Public AdministrationMaastrichtNetherlands

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