Zero-based Physical Budgeting

  • Fiona Czerniawska
  • Gavin Potter


Throughout this book, we have given examples of organisations that have changed the rules of an industry by moving processes from the physical domain to the virtual domain, by converting a physical process into information. We believe that all industries (see below) will be subject to this type of revolutionary change, and that those organisations that embrace these changes will prosper and those that do not will fail. The subject of this chapter is how to identify when and where such changes might occur and how you can be first to exploit them.


Smart Card Virtual World Harvard Business Review Electricity Company Physical Element 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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  1. Micheal Hammer, ‘Re-engineering Work: Don’t Automate, Obliterate’, Harvard Business Review, July–August, 1980.Google Scholar
  2. Gary Hamel, ‘Strategy as Revolution’, Harvard Business Review, July–August, 1996.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Fiona Czerniawska and Gavin Potter 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fiona Czerniawska
  • Gavin Potter

There are no affiliations available

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