The Structure of British Industry’s Sales in Foreign Markets

  • Peter J. Buckley


This paper examines the macro level picture of structure of British industry’s sales in foreign markets. The structure of sales is given by the division between exports from the UK, sales licensed abroad by British firms and the sales arising from British foreign direct investment. Our concern is with British-owned industry, hence we exclude the exports of foreign-owned companies based in the UK. Thus total foreign sales (TFS) equals exports (X) plus licensed sales (L) plus sales from foreign investment (I), i.e. TFS = X + L + I.


Foreign Direct Investment Foreign Investment Direct Investment Market Service Multinational Enterprise 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Y. Aharoni (1966). The Foreign Investment Decision Process, Boston, Mass.: Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  2. R. Z. Aliber (1970). A theory of foreign direct investment, in: The International Firm, C. P. Kindleberger (ed.), Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  3. R. D. Belli (1970). Sales of Foreign Affiliates of US Firms 1961–5, 1967 and 1968 Survey of Current Business, October.Google Scholar
  4. M. Z. Brooke (1984). Centralization and Autonomy, Eastbourne: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  5. P. J. Buckley (1982). The role of exporting in the market servicing policies of multinational manufacturing enterprises: theoretical and empirical perspectives, in: Export Management, M. R. Czinkota and G. Tesar (eds), New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  6. P. J. Buckley (1985). New forms of international industrial cooperation, in: Buckley and Casson (1985a).Google Scholar
  7. P. J. Buckley (1989). Foreign Market Servicing Strategies and Competitiveness: A Theoretical Framework, in: International Strategic Management A. R. Negandhi and Arun Savara (eds), Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  8. P. J. Buckley and P. F. R. Artisien (1987). North-South Direct Investment in the European Communities. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. P. J. Buckley, Z. Berkova and G. D. Newbould (1983). Direct Investment in the UK by Smaller European Firms. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. P. J. Buckley and M. Casson (1976). The Future of the Multinational Enterprise, London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  11. P. J. Buckley and M. Casson (1985a). The Economic Theory of the Multinational Enterprise: Selected Readings, London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. P. J. Buckley and M. Casson (1985b). The optimal timing of a foreign direct investment, in: Buckley and Casson (1985a).Google Scholar
  13. P. J. Buckley and M. Casson (1987). A theory of cooperation in international business. In Cooperative Strategies in International Business, F. J. Contractor and P. Lorange (eds), Lexington Mass.: Lexington Books, D. C.Google Scholar
  14. Heath and Co. Also in Management International Review (Special issues on cooperative strategies in international business) (1988), 19–38.Google Scholar
  15. P. J. Buckley and H. Davies (1980). Foreign licensing in overseas operations: theory and evidence from the UK, in: Technology Transfer and Economic Development, Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  16. P. J. Buckley, H. Mirza and J. R. Sparkes (1984). European affiliates in Japan. Tokyo Report to the Japan Foundation.Google Scholar
  17. P. J. Buckley, H. Mirza and J. R. Sparkes (1987). Direct foreign investment in Japan as a means of market entry. Journal of Marketing Management 2(3), Spring, 241–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. P. J. Buckley, G. D. Newbould and J. Thurwell (1988). Foreign Direct Investment by Smaller UK Firms, London: Macmillan. 1st edn published as Going International — The Experiences of UK Firms Overseas (1978), London: Associated Business Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. P. J. Buckley and R. D. Pearce (1979). Overseas production and exporting by the world’s largest enterprise–a study in sourcing policy Journal of International Business Studies, 10 (1), 9–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. P. J. Buckley and R. D. Pearce (1981). Market servicing by multinational manufacturing firms: exporting versus foreign production. Managerial and Economics 2 (4), 229–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. P. J. Buckley and R. D. Pearce (1984). Exports in the strategy of multinational enterprises. Journal of Business Research 12 (2), 209–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. S. Carlson (1975). How Foreign is Foreign Trade? Uppsala: University of Uppsala.Google Scholar
  23. M. Casson (1985) Multinational and intermediate product trade. In Buckley and Casson (1985a).Google Scholar
  24. M. Casson (ed.) (1986). Multinationals and World Trade, London: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  25. S. T. Cavusgil (1972). Some observations on the relevance of critical variables for internationalisation stages, in: Export Management, M. R. Czinkota and G. Tesar (eds), New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  26. J. Clegg (1987). Multinational Enterprise and World Competition, London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. H. Davies (1972a). Technology transfer through commercial transactions. Journal of Industrial Economics 26 (4), 161–75.Google Scholar
  28. J. H. Dunning (1972a). The location of international firms in an enlarged EEC: an exploratory paper. Manchester: Manchester Statistical Society.Google Scholar
  29. J. H. Dunning (ed.) (1972b). International Investment, Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  30. J. H. Dunning (ed.) (1981). International Production and the Multinational Enterprise, London: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  31. J. H. Dunning and P. J. Buckley (1977). International production and alternative models of trade. Manchester School 65 (4), 392–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. European Management Forum (1984). Report on Industrial Competitiveness 1984, Switzerland: EMIF.Google Scholar
  33. I. H. Giddy (1978). The demise of the product cycle in international business theory. Columbia Journal of World Business 13 (1), 90–7.Google Scholar
  34. I. H. Giddy and A. M. Rugman (1979). A model of trade, foreign direct investment and licencing. Columbia University, mimeo, New York.Google Scholar
  35. J.-F. Hennart (1986). What is internalization? Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv. 122 (4). 791–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. S. Hirsh (1976). An international trade and investment theory of the firm. Oxford Economic Papers 28, 258–70.Google Scholar
  37. N. Hood and S. Young (1979). The Economics of Multinational Enterprise, London: Longman.Google Scholar
  38. T. O. Horst (1971). The theory of the multinational firm–optimal behaviour under different tariff and tax rates. Journal of Political Economy 79 (5), 1059–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. T. O. Horst (1972). Firm and industry determinants of the decision to investment abroad: an empirical study. Review of Economics and Statistics 54, 258–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. T. O. Horst (1974). The theory of the firm, in: Economic Analysis and the Multinational Enterprise, J. H. Dunning (ed.), London: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  41. J. Johanson and J. E. Vahine (1977). The internationalization process of the firm–a model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitments. Journal of International Business Studies 8 (1), 23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. F. T. Knickerbocker (1973). Oligopolistic Reaction and Multinational Enterprise Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  43. P. R. Krugman (ed.) (1986). Strategic Trade Policy and the New International Economic, 27(1), 58–66.Google Scholar
  44. R. Luostarinen (1978). Internationalization of the Firm, Helsinki: Helsinki School of Economics.Google Scholar
  45. K. Ohmae (1985). Triad Power: The Coming Shape of Global Competition, New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  46. S. Nicholas (1986). The theory of multinational enterprise as a transaction mode, in: Multinational: Theory and History, P. Hertner and G. Jones (eds), Aldershot: Gower.Google Scholar
  47. J. Polk, F. W. Meister and L. A. Veit (1966) US Production Abroad and the Balance of Payments. New York: The National Industrial Conference Board.Google Scholar
  48. M. E. Porter (1986a). Competition in global industries: a conceptual framework, in: Porter (1986b).Google Scholar
  49. M. E. Porter (ed.) (1986b). Competition in global industries. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  50. D. Shepherd, A. Silbertson and R. Strange (1985) British Manufacturing Investment Overseas. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  51. F. M. Sherer et al. (1975). The Economics of Multi-Plant Operation — An International Comparison Study, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  52. H. Simon and D. M. Palder (1987). Market entry in Japan–some problems and solutions. Journal of Marketing Management 2 (3), 225–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. R. Vernon (1966). International investment and international trade in the product cycle. QuarterJournal of Economics 80, 190–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. L. Welch and F. Wiedersheim-Paul (1980a). Domestic expansion — internationalization at home. South Carolina Essays in International Business 2.Google Scholar
  55. L. Welch and F. Wiedersheim-Paul (1980b). Initial exports — a marketing failure. Journal of Management Studies 17 (3).Google Scholar
  56. R. G. White and T. A Poynter (1984). Strategies for foreign-owned subsidiiaries in Canada. Business Quarterly.Google Scholar
  57. F. Wiedersheim-Paul (1972). Uncertainty and economic distance. Uppsala Studies in International Business, Uppsala University.Google Scholar
  58. S. Young (1987). Business strategy and the internationalization of business: recent approaches. Managerial and Decision Economics 8 (1), 31–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Peter J. Buckley 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter J. Buckley
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre of International BusinessUniversity of LeedsUK

Personalised recommendations