Skip to main content

The Superpowers and the October War

  • Chapter
  • 125 Accesses

Abstract

Faced with the threat of a direct confrontation between the superpowers, Israel and Egypt were at first compelled by their respective patrons, the USA and the Soviet Union, to acquiesce to paragraph 1 of UN Security Council Resolution 338, and comply with the ceasefire agreement. Israel, however, continued hostilities: on 23 October, Israeli troops succeeded in completely encircling the Third Egyptian Army. Although it had already been encircled on 19 October, it had retained access to the road link to Cairo, which was its supply route. On October 23, the UN Security Council met again and adopted a further resolution, no. 339, reiterating the ceasefire call expressed in Resolution 338. Israel continued fighting, however, thereby precipitating its patron into an international political crisis. The Soviet Union could not now abandon its client without jeopardising its credibility as a superpower.

Keywords

  • Middle East
  • Security Council
  • Security Council Resolution
  • Regional Conflict
  • International Crisis

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1057/9780230371576_7
  • Chapter length: 14 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   44.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-0-230-37157-6
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   119.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes and References

  1. I. Frank Aker, October 1973, The Arab—Israeli War, Hamden, Conn., 1985, p. 31.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Jon D. Glassman, Arms for the Arabs: The Soviet Union and War in the Middle East, Baltimore, London, 1977, p. 138.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Galia Golan, Yom Kippur and After: The Soviet Union and the Middle East Crisis, Cambridge, 1977, pp. 118ff.

    Google Scholar 

  4. William Quandt, Decade of Decisions: American Foreign Policy toward the Arab—Israeli Conflict 1967–1976, Berkeley, 1977, p. 197; see also Shoemaker and Spanier (note 6), p. 171.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Stephen T. Hosmer and Thomas W. Wolfe, Soviet Policy and Practice toward Third World Conflicts, Lexington, Mass., 1983, pp. 50–2.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Richard Nixon, The Memoirs of Richard Nixon, New York, 1978, p. 938.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Martin J. Slominski, ‘The Soviet Military Press and the October War’, in Military Review, vol. 54. May issue (1974), pp. 39–47.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Stanley Hoffmann, Primacy or World Order: American Foreign Policy since the Cold War, New York, 1978, p. 295.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Gabriel Sheffer, ‘Independence in Dependence of Regional Powers: the Uncomfortable Alliances in the Middle East before and after the October War 1973’, in Orbis, vol. 19, no. 4 (1976), pp. 1519–38. This deals with the problem of domesticating the foreign policy of the Third World states within a bipolar international order. See Christopher Clapham (ed.), Foreign Policy Making in Developing States: A Comparative Approach 2nd edn, Westmead, Hunts., 1979. Specifically on the countries on this particular region, see B. Korany and A. Hillal Dessouki (eds), The Foreign Policies of Arab States Boulder, Col., 1984. Prior to this book, Korany outlined his theoretical ideas in a case study of Egypt (chapter VII): Bahgat Korany, Social Change, Charisma and International Behaviour: Toward a Theory of Foreign Policy-Making in the Third World Leiden, Geneva, 1976; on the subsystem debate, see pp. 140ff, on Egypt see pp. 267ff.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Gabriel Sheffer, ‘Superpowers and Client States: Middle East Relationships since 1973’, in Wiener Library Bulletin (GB), vol. 27 (1974), pp. 48–53, here p. 52.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Paul Jabber and Roman Kolkowicz, ‘The Arab—Israeli Wars of 1967 and 1973’, in S. Kaplan (ed.), Diplomacy of Power: Soviet Armed Forces as a Political Instrument, Washington, 1982, pp. 412–67, here p. 467.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Henry Kissinger, Years of Upheaval, London, 1982, pp. 646ff.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Edward Sheehan, The Arabs, Israelis and Kissinger: A Secret History of American Diplomacy in the Middle East, New York, 1976, pp. 48f.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Lawrence L. Whetten, The Canal War: Four-Power Conflict in the Middle East, Cambridge, Mass., 1974, p. 295.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Chaim Herzog, The War of Atonement, London, 1975, p. 270.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Glenn H. Snyder and Paul Diesing, Conflict Among Nations, Princeton, NJ 1977, p. 6.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Copyright information

© 1998 Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Tibi, B. (1998). The Superpowers and the October War. In: Conflict and War in the Middle East. Palgrave Macmillan, London. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230371576_7

Download citation