Are the Brazilian Lower Classes Universal? Towards a Critical Theory of Modernization

  • Jessé Souza
Part of the Frontiers of Globalization Series book series (FOG)


Karl Marx posed the question about the singularity of symbolic domination in capitalist societies. He realized that capitalism, in contrast to complex societies in the past, does not need a special group of persons to legitimize the existing social order, such as the mandarins in imperial China. At least in its most important dimension, the existing order of capitalism is legitimized through a ‘spontaneous ideology’ which is generated in an opaque and subtle way. The opaque nature of this domination may be the defining characteristic of capitalism. It is certainly responsible for its exceptional efficacy and longevity.


Modern Society Cultural Capital Critical Theory Personal Network Capitalist Society 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Jessé Souza 2011

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  • Jessé Souza

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