Cooptation, Acceptance and Resistance in the Somali ‘Everyday’

  • Karl Sandstrom
Part of the Rethinking Peace and Conflict Studies book series (RCS)


The image of Somalia as a violent and anarchic state of social order has been prevalent in international media and political discourse since the early 1990s. Constant references to the ‘failed state’ not only belie the socio-political orders that have provided social control of the ‘everyday’, Mogadishu being a notable exception, but also ignore the achievements made by sub-state entities in creating and maintaining frameworks of peaceful political interaction.1 They also disregard the success of the internally controlled peace processes of the North, compared to the failures of the externally controlled processes in the South. This chapter examines how different logics are actuated and employed in the Somali context. External influences have affected Somalia and have contributed to the multiple social ‘everydays’ found within the country. The overarching logic is one of pragmatism and survival, which has produced a context in which externally generated projects are coopted and subverted in the pursuit of localized agendas.


United Nations Peace Process Solidarity Group Somali Woman Localize Agenda 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 2.
    Ioan M. Lewis, Understanding Somalia and Somaliland, London: Hurst Publishers, 2008, p. 29.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    Cabdiraxmaan Jimcaale, ‘Consolidation and Decentralization of Government Institutions’, War-Torn Societies Project International, Rebuilding Somaliland: Issues and Possibilities, Asmara: Red Sea Press, 2005, pp. 49–121, at pp. 51–52.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    Michael Walls, ‘The Emergence of a Somali State: Building Peace from Civil War in Somaliland’, African Affairs, Vol. 108, No. 432, July 2009, pp. 371–389, at p. 383.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    Mark Bradbury, Becoming Somaliland, London: Progressio, 2008, p. 25.Google Scholar
  5. 13.
    Barnett R. Rubin, The Fragmentation of Afghanistan, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002, p. 10.Google Scholar
  6. 16.
    Richard Schultz and Andrea Dew, Insurgents, Terrorists, and Militias: The Warriors of Contemporary Combat, New York: Columbia University Press, 2006, p. 84.Google Scholar
  7. 17.
    Ameen Jan, ‘Somalia: Building Sovereignty or Restoring Peace’, in Elisabeth M. Cousens and Chetan Kumar (eds), Peacebuilding as Politics: Cultivating Peace in Fragile Societies, Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2001, pp. 53–88, at p. 72.Google Scholar
  8. 35.
    Brian J. Hesse, ‘Lessons in Successful Somali Governance’, Journal of Contemporary African Studies, Vol. 28, No. 1, January 2010, pp. 71–83, at p. 72.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Karl Sandstrom 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karl Sandstrom

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations