Zonguldak Coalfield and the Past and Future of Turkish Coal-mining Communities
- 97 Downloads
Zonguldak, a province of 620,000 people on the western Black Sea coast in Turkey, was once an industrial powerhouse attracting migrants from various parts of the country.1 The city and the surrounding coalmining basin emerged as the single most important mining centre in the Ottoman Empire. Before 1848, when coal production began in the surrounding area, Zonguldak was a neighbourhood in a small village. In a matter of decades, it had emerged as an important Ottoman town and became one of the ‘workshop’ cities of the Turkish Republic, which was established in 1923. In Ottoman and early Republican times, the region was called the Ereğli coal basin, because the port town of Ereğli was an older settlement and was socially and economically more important to the region than Zonguldak. As Zonguldak grew in size and in importance, the region came to be called the Zonguldak coal basin. The transformation deeply affected the lives of the inhabitants of the region. While the local villagers began to work in underground jobs on a rotational basis, a largely immigrant workforce employed permanently in the above-ground tasks also emerged. In the Ottoman and early Republican periods, despite attempts at regulation and improvement, miners worked under extremely difficult conditions and delays in wage payments, arbitrary fines, work-related diseases and accidents were common.
KeywordsCoal Mining Coal Basin Mining Sector Underground Worker Spatial Division
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Aytekin, E. A. Tarlalardan Ocaklara Sefaletten Mücadeleye: Zonguldak-Ereğli Kömür Havzasi İşçileri 1948–1922 (Istanbul: YordamKitap, 2006).Google Scholar
- Bourdieu, P. Sociology in Question (London: Sage, 1993).Google Scholar
- Bourdieu, P. et al.The Weight of the World: Social Suffering in Contemporary Society (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999).Google Scholar
- Charlesworth, S. J. A Phenomenology of Working Class Experience (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).Google Scholar
- Çiladir, S. Zonguldak Havzasmda Işçi Hareketlerinin Tarihi, 1848–1940 (Ankara: Yeralti Maden-İş, 1977).Google Scholar
- Crow, G. and G. Allan. Community Life: An Introduction to Local Social Relations (New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1994).Google Scholar
- DPT (State Planning Organisation, Turkey) ‘Bartin İli Gelişmişlik Performansi’ (Performance report), http://www.dpt.gov.tr/bgyu/ipg/ipg.html, accessed 20 October 2008.
- DPT (State Planning Organisation, Turkey) ‘Bartin’, İllerde Öne Çikan Sanayi Sektörleri, http://www.dpt.gov.tr/bgyu/illerdesanayi/illerdesanayi.html, accessed 20 October 2008, pp. 595–600.
- DPT (State Planning Organisation, Turkey) ‘Karabük İli Gelişmişik Performansi’ (Performance Report), http://www.dpt.gov.tr/bgyu/ipg/ipg.html, accessed 20 October 2008.
- DPT (State Planning Organisation, Turkey) ‘Karabük’ Illerde Öne Çikan Sanayi Sektörleri, http://www.dpt.gov.tr/bgyu/illerdesanayi/illerdesanayi.html, accessed 20 October 2008, pp. 627–32.
- DPT (State Planning Organisation, Turkey) ‘Zonguldak İli Gelişmişlik Performansi’ (Performance report), http://www.dpt.gov.tr/bgyu/ipg/ipg.html, accessed 20 October 2008.
- DPT (State Planning Organisation, Turkey) ‘Zonguldak’ İllerde Öne Çikan Sanayi Sektörleri, http://www.dpt.gov.tr/bgyu/illerdesanayi/illerdesanayi.html, accessed 20 October 2008, pp. 539–44.
- Duman, Y. ‘Notables, Textiles and Copper in Ottoman Tokat, 1750–1840’, unpublished PhD dissertation, Binghamton University, SUNY, 1998.Google Scholar
- Eldem, V. Osmanli İmparatorluğu’nun İktisadi Şartlari Hakkinda Bir Tetkik (Ankara: TTK, 1994).Google Scholar
- Ersoy, M., H. T. Şengül, A. Hoşgör and C. Tokluoğlu. Tokluoğlu ‘Zonguldak Kentinde Yaşanan Sanayisizleşme Süreçlerinin Kentsel Gelişmeye Etkileri ve Yerel Topluluklar Üzerindeki Sonuçlari’, report presented to Governor’s Office of Zonguldak, Ankara, 2000.Google Scholar
- Fine, B. The Coal Question: Political Economy and Industrial Change from the Nineteenth Century to the Present Day (London: Routledge, 1990).Google Scholar
- Güzel, M. S. Türkiye’de İşçi Hareketi 1908–1984 (İstanbul: Kaynak, 1996).Google Scholar
- Harvey, D. Urbanisation of Capital (Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 1985).Google Scholar
- Harvey, D. Spaces of Capital: Towards a Critical Geography (New York, NY: Routledge, 2001).Google Scholar
- Harvey, D. ‘Social Justice, Postmodernism and the City’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 16/3 (1992), 38–61.Google Scholar
- Kahveci, E. ‘The Miners of Zonguldak’, in E. Kahveci, N. Sungur and T. Nichols (eds.) Work and Occupation in Modern Turkey (London: Mansell, 1996), pp. 172–207.Google Scholar
- Kiray, M. Ereğli: Ağir Sanayiden Önce Bir Sahil Kasabasi (İstanbul: Bağlam, 2000).Google Scholar
- Koç, Y. Türkiye’de İşçi Sinifi ve Sendikacihk Hareketi (İstanbul: Gerçek, 1998).Google Scholar
- Massey, D. Spatial Division of Labour (London: MacMillan, 1984).Google Scholar
- Oskay, Ü. Geçiş Dönemi Tipi Olarak Zonguldak Kömür Havzasi Maden İşçi (İzmir: Ticaret Matbaacihk, 1983).Google Scholar
- Ozan, E. D. ‘Kriz, Sinif Mücadelesi ve Devlet: Türkiye’de Sermaye Simfi, 1977–1980.’ Unpublished PhD dissertation, Ankara University, 2010.Google Scholar
- Palairet, P. The Balkan Economies, C.1800–1914. Evolution without Development (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).Google Scholar
- Quataert, D. Ottoman Manufacturing in the Age of the Industrial Revolution (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).Google Scholar
- Quataert, D. Miners and the State in the Ottoman Empire: The Zonguldak Coalfield, 1822–1920 (New York: Berghahn Books, 2006).Google Scholar
- Quataert, D. Social Disintegration and Popular Resistance in the Ottoman Empire, 1881–1908. Reactions to European Economic Penetration (New York: NYU Press, 1983).Google Scholar
- Tansel, A. ‘Türkiye’de Özelletirme Nedeniyle İşten Çikarilan İşçiler: Çikarilma Öncesinde ve Sonrasmda Durumlari’, ERC Working Paper Series 6 (Middle East Technical University, 1998).Google Scholar
- Timur, T. Türk Devrimi ve Sonrasi (Ankara: İmge, 1997).Google Scholar
- TÜİK (Turkish Statistical Institute), ‘Göç: Tarihsel Gelişim’, http://www.tuik.gov.tr/VeriBilgi.do?tb_id=38&ust_id=11, accessed 20 October 2008.
- Tuncer, K. Tarihten Günümüze Zonguldak’ta İşçi Sinifinin Durumu. Kumpanyalar Dönemine Geri Dönüs (Istanbul: Göçebe, 1998).Google Scholar
- Türkiye Sendikacilik Ansiklopedisi (İstanbul: Kültür Bakanliği ve Tarih Vakfi, 1996).Google Scholar
- Tüylüoğlu, Ş. and D. N. Karakaş, ‘Bölgesel Kalkinma ve Ekonomik Durgunlagma Süreci: Zonguldak Örneği’, Amme İdaresi Dergisi, 39/4 (2006), 195–224.Google Scholar
- UPL (Urban Policy Planning and Local Governments Studio, Middle East Technical University) Sanayisizlesme Sürecinin Kentsel Yasama Etkileri: Zonguldak Örneği (Ankara: 2000).Google Scholar
- Warde, A. ‘Spatial Change, Politics and the Division of Labour’ in D. Gregory and J. Urry (eds.) Social Relations and Spatial Structures (London: MacMillan, 1985).Google Scholar
- Warwick, D. and G. Littlejohn. Coal, Capital, and Culture: A Sociological Analysis of Mining Communities in West Yorkshire (London: Routledge, 1992).Google Scholar
- Yazici, E. Karabük’te Ailesi (Ankara: İmaj, 1992).Google Scholar
- Zonguldak Metropoliten Alani (ZMA) Belediyeler Birliği Planlama Örgiitü Baluzmanhgi, Gruplu Maden İşçileri (1974) (Zonguldak: 1976).Google Scholar
- Zonguldak, Governor’s Office, http://www.zonguldak.gov.tr/, accessed 20 October 2008.