Advertisement

The Re-evaluation of Milan Nedić and Draža Mihailović in Serbia

  • Sladjana Lazić

Abstract

After the fall of the Berlin Wall, together with the post-communist transitions, Eastern Europe was faced with the revival of right-wing nationalism and anti-communism.2 With ‘the return of history’,3 there have been attempts to rehabilitate historical figures previously condemned for fascist and/or Nazi attitudes and acts (as the cases of Marshal Ion Antonescu in Romania, Miklös Horthy in Hungary, and Jozef Tiso in Slovakia demonstrate). In Serbia, the re-examination of the communist historical paradigm started after the death of Tito in 1980 and was marked by disappointment with the common state and, as a Belgrade weekly called it, ‘the outburst of history’.4 As time passed, the processes of revising the communist historical paradigm and the revival of national identity in Serbia were most clearly manifested (and mutually connected) during the late 1980s and throughout the 1990s in stories about the ‘homogenization of the nation through the reconciliation of ideological differences within the nation’.5 In other words, the ideological reconciliation within the nation meant reconciliation between Chetniks and Partisans which eventually happened at the official level, after the fall of Milošević. It was during Vojislav Koštunica’s first term as prime minister of Serbia that the December 2004 law6 declaring that the Chetnik and Partisan movements were equally liberation movements was passed. Subsequently, with the Rehabilitation Act7 adopted in April 2006, the Serbian Assembly not only institutionalized the rehabilitation of ideological opponents to communism, but also undertook historical revision, thereby establishing a new past.

Keywords

Political Elite Communist Regime Historical Role Official Gazette Memorial Service 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 2.
    Dejan Djokić, ‘Unutaretničko pomirenje I nacionalna homogenizacija: diskursi o pomirenju u Srbiji i Hrvatskoj krajem 80-ih i početkom 90-ih’, Reč, vol. 70, no. 16 (June 2003), p. 115. See the relevant chapters in Sabrina P. Ramet (ed.), The Radical Right in Central and Eastern Europe since 1989 (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999).Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    Jasna Dragovic-Soso, Saviors of the Nation: Serbia’s Intellectual Opposition and the Revival of Nationalism (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2002), Chapter 2 (pp. 64–114).Google Scholar
  3. 8.
    Dušan Reljić, Pisanje smrti. Mediji u vremenima sukoba (Belgrade: Radio B92, 1998), p. 40.Google Scholar
  4. 9.
    Stuart Hall, ‘Encoding/Decoding’, in Meenakshi Gigi Durham and Douglas M. Kellner (eds), Media and Cultural Studies: Key Works (Oxford: Blackwell, 2005), pp. 166–176.Google Scholar
  5. 10.
    Wulf Kansteiner, ‘Finding Meaning in Memory: A Methodological Critique of Collective Memory Studies’, History and Theory, vol. 41, no. 2 (May 2002), p. 195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 11.
    Michael Schudson, Watergate in American Memory: How We Remember, Forget, and Reconstruct the Past (Boston and New York: BasicBooks division of HarperCollins Publishers, 1992), p. 206.Google Scholar
  7. 12.
    Gordana Djerić, ‘Semantika ćutanja, nasilje i društveno pamćenje: intima hrvatske i srpske politike’, in Gordana Djerić (ed.), Intima javnosti (Belgrade: Institut za filozofiju i društvenu teoriju, Fabrika knjiga, 2008), p. 64.Google Scholar
  8. 13.
    Dejan Jović, ‘“Official Memories” in Post-authoritarianism: An Analytical Framework’, Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, vol. 6, no. 2 (August 2004), pp. 98–106, see also Gordana Djerić, ‘Semantika ćutanja, nasilje i društveno pamćenje’.Google Scholar
  9. 17.
    Todor Kuljić, Prevladavanje prošlosti. Uzroci I pravci promene slike istorije krajem XX veka (Belgrade: Helsinški odbor za ljudska prava u Srbiji, 2002), p. 412.Google Scholar
  10. 18.
    See Ivan Čolović, Bordel ratnika (Belgrade: Biblioteka XX vek, 2007), pp. 107–114.Google Scholar
  11. 21.
    Noć đenerala (‘The Night of the General’) (Belgrade: Srpska reč, 1994).Google Scholar
  12. 28.
    General Milan Dj. Nedić, Desna Srbija — Moja reč Srbima 1941–1944: Izabrani ratni govori (Belgrade: Slobodna knjiga, 1996). In 2006 another book, Govori generala Milana Nedića — predsednika Vlade narodnog spasa, originally published in 1943, was reissued in Belgrade. These data are based on the bibliography of the book written by Ljubinka Škodrić, Ministarstvo prosvete I vera u Srbiji 1941–1944. Sudbina institucije pod okupacijom (Belgrade: Arhiv Srbije, 2009), p. 419.Google Scholar
  13. 31.
    Quoted in Norman Cigar, Vojislav Kostunica and Serbia’s Future (London: Saqi Books in association with The Bosnian Institute, 2001), p. 35.Google Scholar
  14. 34.
    Dejan Ilić, ‘Tranziciona Pravda kao politika culture’, Reč: časopis za književnost i kulturu, i društvena pitanja, vol. 79, no. 25 (2009), p. 177.Google Scholar
  15. 35.
    Nenad Dimitrijević, ‘Zločinački režim, njegovi podanici i masovni zločini’, Reč: časopis za književnost i kulturu, i društvena pitanja, vol. 79, no. 25 (2009), pp. 133–162; this article is also available online at the Peščanik website, www.pescanik.net/content/view/3634/133/ [accessed on 17 February 2011]. See also Nenad Dimitrijevič, ‘Serbia after the Criminal Past: What Went Wrong and What Should be Done’, The International Journal of Transitional Justice, vol. 2, no. 1 (March 2008), pp. 5–22.Google Scholar
  16. 41.
    Barbie Zelizer, ‘Why Memory’s Work on Journalism Does Not Reflect Journalism’s Work on Memory’, Memory Studies, vol. 1, no. 1 (January 2008), pp. 79–86; Jill A. Edy, ‘Journalistic Uses of Collective Memory’, Journal of Communication (Spring 1999), pp. 71–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 63.
    J.-W. Mueller (ed.), Memory and Power in Post-War Europe (Cambridge University Press, 2002), p. 24.Google Scholar
  18. 64.
    Alon Confino, ‘Collective Memory and Cultural History: Problems of Method’, The American Historical Review, vol. 102, no. 5 (December 1997), pp. 1386–1403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Sladjana Lazić 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sladjana Lazić

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations