Conclusion: Rethinking Approaches to Ending Conflict

  • Oliver P. Richmond
Part of the Global Issues book series (GLOISS)


The hybridization of the monodimensional approaches that character- ized first and second generation approaches to ending conflict has led to the development of multidimensional third generation approaches op- erating from the global to the local in an effort to produce inclusive structures and settlements. This has led to the merging of top-down and bottom-up approaches in an attempt to replace particularism with cosmopolitanism. This reframing has raised several new and familiar debates. The first significant question relates to the type of order that hegemonic powers with sovereign claims to truth and knowledge use to reify approaches for ending conflict. In the Westphalian system their application resulted in the preservation of the state-centric, male-dom- inated order, territorial integrity, and very basic human rights.2 It pre- served a systemic balance of power that resulted in the positivist aspects of order taking precedence over the normative, and state security taking precedence over human security — in other words a negative peace. Have third generation approaches moved beyond this — from the Westphalian into a post-Westphalian order? Debrix has shown how the UN can be compared to a panopticon in which global observation and surveillance, not to mention intervention, occurs to endorse and simulate certain forms of order propagated (though negotiated to a certain extent) by its dominant members and by the universal claims of the Charter within the context of their claims to forms of global governance and globaliza- tion. 3


International System Political Community State Security Human Security Peace Process 
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Copyright information

© Oliver P. Richmond 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oliver P. Richmond
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of International RelationsUniversity of St AndrewsUK

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