South Africa pp 101-125 | Cite as

British Colonies

  • T. R. H. Davenport
  • Christopher Saunders


The progress of the Cape towards self-government took a course similar to that of British colonies of conquest and settlement elsewhere. As in French Canada, a governor with arbitrary power replaced the military rule of the conquest era. As in New South Wales, the Governor was provided in due course with a council of officials (1825), whose advice he could ignore, but not without explanation to the Secretary of State. After the arrival of the 1820 settlers, who carried with them something of the political ferment of post-Napoleonic Britain, the Government at the Cape came under pressure from a small group of radical democrats in both the eastern and the western Cape, who waged a successful campaign for the freedom of the press and for some measure of political representation.


Responsible Government British Coloni Executive Council Legislative Council Native Policy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliographical Notes

6.1 Cape political and constitutional growth, 1820–72, and the politics of separatism

  1. Botha H. C., John Fairbairn in South Africa (1984); Davenport T. R. H., ‘The consolidation of a new society: the Cape Colony’ in *Wilson and Thompson I (1969) 311–33; Donaldson (n. 3.4);Google Scholar
  2. Duminy A. H., The Role of Sir A. Stockenstrom in Cape Politics, 1825–54’, (AYB 1960); Du Toit A. in *Butler, Elphick and Welsh 35–63;Google Scholar
  3. Edgecombe D. R., ‘The non-racial franchise in Cape politics, 1843–1910’, Kleio 10 (1978) 2–37;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fryer A. K., ‘The government of the Cape of Good Hope, 1825–54’ (AYB 1964);Google Scholar
  5. George M., J. B. Ebden: His Business and Political Career at the Cape, 1806–49 (AYB 1986/I);Google Scholar
  6. Hattersley A. F., The Convict Crisis and the Growth of Unity (1965); Keegan (n. 2.3);Google Scholar
  7. Kilpin R., The Romance of a Colonial Parliament (1938);Google Scholar
  8. Le Cordeur B. A., ‘Robert Godlonton as architect of frontier opinion’, (AYB 1959); and The Politics of Eastern Cape Separatism, 1820–54’ (1981); Mandelbrote H. J. (n. 5.1);Google Scholar
  9. McCracken J. L., The Cape Parliament (1967); and New Light at the Cape of Good Hope: William Porter, the Father of Cape Liberalism (1993);Google Scholar
  10. Meiring J., Thomas Pringle: His Life and Times (1968);Google Scholar
  11. Rutherford J., Sir George Grey, 1812–98: A Study in Colonial Government (1961);Google Scholar
  12. Smith K. W., From Frontier to Midlands: A History of the Graaff-Reinet District, 1786–1910 (1976);Google Scholar
  13. Stead J. L., ‘The Development and Failure of the Eastern Cape Separatist Movement’, (AYB 1982);Google Scholar
  14. Trapido S., ‘The origins of the Cape franchise qualifications of 1853’, JAH 5 (1964) 37–54;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Warren D., ‘Class rivalry and Cape politics in the mid-nineteenth century: a reappraisal of the Kirk thesis’, SAHJ 24 (1991) 112–27.Google Scholar

6.2 Cape politics in the era of diamonds and the Rhodes-Hofmeyr alliance, 1870–99

  1. Davenport T. R. H., The Afrikaner Bond (1966);Google Scholar
  2. Du Toit A., ‘Puritans in Africa? Afrikaner “Calvinism” and Kuyperian neo-Calvinism in late 19th-century South Africa’, CSSH 27 (1985) 209–40;Google Scholar
  3. Du Toit S. J., Die Geskiedenis van ons Land in die Taal van ons Volk (1877, reprint 1975);Google Scholar
  4. First R. and Scott A., Olive Schreiner (1980);Google Scholar
  5. Flint J., Cecil Rhodes (1976);Google Scholar
  6. Giliomee H., ‘Western Cape farmers and the beginning of Afrikaner nationalism’, JSAS 14 (1987) 38–63; and ‘The beginnings of Afrikaner nationalism, 1871–1915’, SAHJ 19 (1987) 115–42; and ‘The beginnings of Afrikaner ethnic consciousness’ in Vail (n. 14.4);Google Scholar
  7. Hofmeyr J. H., Life of J. H. Hofmeyr (Onze Jan) (1913);Google Scholar
  8. Kallaway P., ‘Labour in the Kimberley diamond fields’, SALB 1 (1974) 52–61; Lewsen (1982) (n. 6.8);Google Scholar
  9. Lockhart J. G. and Wood-house C. M., Rhodes (1963); McCracken (n. 6.1);Google Scholar
  10. Roberts B., Cecil Rhodes: Flawed Colossus (1987); Robertson (n. 8.5);Google Scholar
  11. Rotberg R. I., The Founder: Cecil Rhodes and the Pursuit of Power (1988);Google Scholar
  12. Shepperson G., ‘C. J. Rhodes: some biographical problems’, SAHJ 15 (1983) 53–67; Siebörger R. F., (M. A., Rhodes 1976); Smalberger J., ‘IDB and the mining compound system in the 1880s’, SAJE (1974) 398–414;Google Scholar
  13. Tamarkin M., Cecil Rhodes and the Cape Afrikaners: The Imperial Colossus and the Colonial Parish Pump (1996);Google Scholar
  14. Turrell R., ‘Rhodes, De Beers and monopoly’, JICH 10, 3 (1982) 311–43; and ‘The 1875 Black Flag revolt in the Kimberley Diamond Fields’, JSAS 7, 2 (1981) 194–235; and Capital and Labour in the Kimberley Diamond Fields (1987); Mon (nn.6.2, 8.5);Google Scholar
  15. Van Jaarsveld F. A., The Awakening of Afrikaner Nationalism (1961);Google Scholar
  16. Van der Horst S. T., Native Labour in South Africa (1937);Google Scholar
  17. Williams G. F., The Diamond Mines of South Africa (1902);Google Scholar
  18. Worger W., South Africa’s City of Diamonds: Mine Workers and Monopoly Capitalism in Kimberley, 1867–95 (1987). (See also 8.5. and 20.2);Google Scholar
  19. Wright H. M., Sir James Rose Innes: Selected Correspondence (1972).Google Scholar

6.3 Black politics in the nineteenth-century Cape Colony

  1. *Karis and Carter I; McCracken (1967) (n. 6.1); Odendaal A. Vukani Bantu! The Beginnings of Black Protest Politics in South Africa to 1912 (1984); Saunders (n. 7.10);Google Scholar
  2. Trapido S., ‘African divisional politics in the Cape Colony, 1884–1910’, JAH 9 (1968) 69–98, and ‘The origin and development of the APO’, ICS 1 (1970) 89–111;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Williams D., ‘African nationalism in South Africa: origins and problems’, JAH 11 (1970) 371–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

6.4 The founding and settlement of colonial Natal

  1. Bird J., Annals of Natal (1965 reprint);Google Scholar
  2. Brookes E. H. and Webb C. de B., History of Natal (1965);Google Scholar
  3. Bryant A. T., Olden Times in Zululand and Natal (1929);Google Scholar
  4. *Duminy A. and Guest W R.; Hattersley A. F., The British Settlement of Natal (1950); More Annals of Natal (1936); Later Annals of Natal (1938); The Natalians (1940);Google Scholar
  5. Holden W C., History of the Colony of Natal (1955);Google Scholar
  6. Kotze D. J. (ed.), Letters of the American Missionaries, 1835–38 (31, 1950);Google Scholar
  7. Richardson P., ‘The Natal sugar industry, 1849–1905: an interpretative essay’, ICS 12 (1981) 33–43;Google Scholar
  8. Slater H., ‘Land, labour and capital in Natal: the Natal Land and Colonisation Company, 1860–1948’, JSAH 16 (1975) 257–84;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Stuart J. and Malcolm D.McK., The Diary of H. F. Fynn (1950);Google Scholar

6.5 Shepstone and African administration in Natal

  1. Ballard C. C., ‘Migrant labour in Natal, 1860–79, with special reference to Zululand and Delagoa Bay’, JNZH 1 (1978) 25–42; and ‘A reproach to civilisation: John Dunn and the missionaries’, SAHJ 11 (1979) 36–55;Google Scholar
  2. Brookes E. H., White Rule in South Africa (1974);Google Scholar
  3. Edgecombe D. R., ‘Sir Marshall Clarke and the abortive attempt to “Basutolandise” Zululand, 1893–97’, JNZH 1 (1978) 43–53;Google Scholar
  4. Etherington N., ‘Why Langalibalele ran away’, JNZH 1 (1978) 1–24, and ‘Labour supply and the genesis of South African confederation in the 1870s’, JAH 20 (1979) 235–53; Geyser O., ‘Die Bantoe-beleid van Theophilus Shepstone’, AYB (1968);Google Scholar
  5. Guy J. J., The Heretic: A Study of the Life of J. W. Colenso (1983); Hamilton C. A., Terrific Majesty (n. 1.4), and SD (1995) 1–22; Kennedy P. (n. 4.6); Lambert J. (n. 7.7), and ‘Chiefship in early Natal, 1843–79, JSAS 21 (1995) 269–86;Google Scholar
  6. Marks S., Reluctant Rebellion (1970);Google Scholar
  7. Webb C. de B., Native policy: the Reitz-Shepstone correspondence of 1891–2’ Natalia 2 (1972) 7–20;Google Scholar
  8. Welsh D., The Roots of Segregation: Native Policy in Natal, 1845–1910 (1971).Google Scholar

6.6 Political developments in Natal to responsible government, 1893

  1. Davenport T. R. H., ‘The responsible government issue in Natal, 1880–82’, BSALR (1957) 84–133; Lambert J., ‘Sir J. Robinson, 1839–1903’, JNZH 3 (1980) 45–56; and (M.A., Natal, 1975);Google Scholar
  2. Lehmann J. H., All Sir Garnet: A Life of Field Marshall Lord Wolseley (1964);Google Scholar
  3. Preston A. (ed.), Sir Garnet Wolseley’s South African Diaries: Natal 1875 (1971); Talbot C. J. (M. A., Natal, 1974) [H. Escombe].Google Scholar

6.7 The arrival of Natal’s Indians

  1. See references in n.9.6 and Bhana S., ‘M. H. Nazaar, Gandhi and the Indian Opinion’, Hist. 23 (1978) 56–62;Google Scholar
  2. and with Pachai B., A Documentary History of Indian South Africans (1984); and ‘The Tolstoy farm: Gandhi’s experiment in “cooperative commonwealth”, SAHJ 7 (1975) 88–100;Google Scholar
  3. and with Mesthrie U., ‘Passive resistance among Indian South Africans: a historiographical survey’, SAHJ 16 (1984) 118–31;Google Scholar
  4. *Bradlow E., ‘Indentured Indians in Natal and the £3 tax’, SAHJ 2 (1970) 38–53; Ginwala F. (D. Phil, Oxford, 1974) [Indian S. Africans and class 1860–1946];Google Scholar
  5. Joshi P. S., The Tyranny of Colour (1942);Google Scholar
  6. Keiser R. D., ‘The South African Indians’ challenge to the Union and Imperial governments, 1910–19’, SAHJ 13 (1981) 78–95;Google Scholar
  7. Meer Y. S. et al., Documents of Indentured Labour: Natal 1851–1917 (1980);Google Scholar
  8. Pachai B. (ed.), South Africa’s Indians: The Evolution of a Minority (1979); and The History of Indian Opinion (AYB 1961);Google Scholar
  9. Palmer M., History of Indians in Natal (NRS 10, 1957); Pillay B., British Indians in the Transvaal: Trade, Politics and Imperial Relations, 1885–1906;Google Scholar
  10. Swanson M. W., ‘The Asiatic menace: creating segregation in Durban, 1870–1900’, IJAHS 16 (1983) 401–21;Google Scholar
  11. Thompson L. M., ‘Indian Immigration into Natal, 1860–72 (AYB 1952).Google Scholar

6.8 The Cape, Natal, and the debate about liberalism

  1. Bank A. (Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge, 1995) [Cape liberalism]; Davenport T. R. H. in *Butler, Elphick and Welsh 21–34; Du Toit A., ‘The Cape Afrikaner’s failed liberal moment’, in *Butler, Elphick and Welsh 35–63; Elbourne (n. 3.6); Keegan (n. 2.3); Legassick M., ‘The rise of modern South African liberalism: its social base’, ICS (1972); Lewsen P., ‘The Cape liberal tradition, myth or reality?’, Race 13 (1971) 65–80; and John X. Merriman (1982);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Macmillan W. M., Bantu, Boer and Briton (1963 edn);Google Scholar
  3. Marquard L., Liberalism in South Africa (SAIRR 1965); McCracken J. L. (n. 6.1);Google Scholar
  4. Peires J. B., ‘Sir George Grey and the Kaffir Relief Committee’, JSAS 10 (1984) 145–69;Google Scholar
  5. Rich P., White Power and the Liberal Conscience (1984), and (n. 13.3);Google Scholar
  6. Rose Innes J., Autobiography (1944);Google Scholar
  7. Ross A., John Philip (1986); Rutherford (n. 6.1);Google Scholar
  8. Solomon W. E. G., Saul Solomon (1948); Trapido S., ‘The friends of the natives: merchants, peasants and the political and ideological structure of liberalism in the Cape, 1884–1910’, in *Marks and Atmore (1980); and ‘From paternalism to liberalism: the Cape Colony, 1820–1824’, IRH 12 (1990) 73–104; and ‘The emergence of liberalism and the making of Hottentot nationalism, 1815–34’, ICS 17 (1992) 34–60; Welsh (n. 6.5).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© T. R. H. Davenport and Christopher Saunders 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. R. H. Davenport
    • 1
  • Christopher Saunders
    • 2
  1. 1.Rhodes UniversityGrahamstownSouth Africa
  2. 2.University of Cape TownSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations