South Africa pp 399-424 | Cite as

Internal Combustion, 1956–64

  • T. R. H. Davenport
  • Christopher Saunders


Between 1955 and 1966 the Government and the Congress leaders locked horns in anger. The black leadership, stung by the outright rejection of their political demands, sought a wider constituency to define these more clearly and voice them more strongly. The Government began to consolidate apartheid with political partition and a republican constitution so as to secure South Africa for local white rule for all time. A series of dramatic confrontations followed: on the one side, resistance to removals, especially in the rural areas, and the calling of a Congress of the People to adopt a Freedom Charter. On the other, the trial of opposition leaders for treason, the banning of the extra-parliamentary opposition, and the declaration of a republic outside the Commonwealth.


Internal Combustion Democratic Progressive Party Progressive Party National Party Cato Manor 
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Bibliographical Notes

15.1 Rural resistance to the apartheid regime

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15.2 The Congress of the People and the Freedom Charter, 1955

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15.3 The first of the major apartheid political trials

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15.4 Verwoerd’s ‘new vision’ and Macmillan’s ‘wind of change’, 1959–60

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15.5 The ANC, the PAC and Sharpeville, 1960

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15.6 The first republican referendum, October 1960

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15.7 Post-Sharpeville resistance: B. J. Vorster and the political underground

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Copyright information

© T. R. H. Davenport and Christopher Saunders 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. R. H. Davenport
    • 1
  • Christopher Saunders
    • 2
  1. 1.Rhodes UniversityGrahamstownSouth Africa
  2. 2.University of Cape TownSouth Africa

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