Europeans, beginning with the Portuguese who first visited the area in 1471–72, traded on the coast for centuries, especially in slaves. In the 19th century palm oil exports flourished at Anecho, Agoue and Porto Seguro, where British, French and German traders operated. Several prominent Togolese families of partly Brazilian or Portuguese origin, still important among the coastal African élite, arose at that time. Despite the important rival influences of Britain and France in the area, it was Germany that established colonial rule on the coast in 1884. German control was then extended inland but only in 1912 was the colony fully subdued.
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- Decalo, Samuel, Togo. [Bibliography] ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1995Google Scholar