Colonization of the Nicaraguan Pacific coast was undertaken by Spaniards from Panama, beginning in 1523. France and Britain, however, and later the USA, all tried to play a colonial or semi-colonial role in Nicaragua. Nicaragua became an independent republic in 1838 but its independence was often threatened by US intervention. Between 1910 and 1930 the country was under almost continuous US military occupation.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Dematteis, L. and Vail, C., Nicaragua: a Decade of Revolution. New York, 1991Google Scholar
- Dijkstra, G., Industrialization in Sandinista Nicaragua: Policy and Party in a Mixed Economy Boulder (CO), 1992Google Scholar
- Jones, Adam, Beyond the Barricades: Nicaragua and the Struggle for the Sandinista Press, 1979–1998. Ohio Univ. Press, Athens (OH), 2002Google Scholar
- Walker, T. W., Nicaragua: the Land of Sandino. 2nd ed. Boulder (CO), 1991Google Scholar
- Woodward, R. L., Nicaragua. [Bibliography] 2nd ed. ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1994Google Scholar
- National Statistical Office: Dirección General de Estadistica y Censos, Managua.Google Scholar
- Website (Spanish only): http://www.inec.gob.ni/