In the 16th century, Spain imported large numbers of African slaves whose descendants now populate the country. The colony subsequently fell under French rule. In 1791 a slave uprising led to the 13-year-long Haitian Revolution. In 1801 Toussaint Louverture, one of the leaders of the revolution, succeeded in eradicating slavery. He proclaimed himself governor-general for life over the whole island. He was captured and sent to France, but Jean-Jacques Dessalines, one of his generals, led the final battle that defeated Napoleon’s forces. The newly-named Haiti declared its independence on 1 Jan. 1804, becoming the first independent black republic in the world. Ruled by a succession of self-appointed monarchs, Haiti became a republic in the mid-19th century. From 1915 to 1934 Haiti was under United States occupation.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Chambers, F., Haiti. [Bibliography] 2nd ed. ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1994Google Scholar
- Heinl, Robert & Nancy, revised by Michael Heinl, Written in Blood. Univ. Press of America, 1996Google Scholar
- Nicholls, D., From Dessalines to Duvalier: Race, Colour and National Independence in Haiti. 2nd ed. CUP, 1992.Google Scholar
- Thomson, I., Bonjour Blanc: a Journey through Haiti. London, 1992Google Scholar
- Weinstein, B. and Segal, A., Haiti: the Failure of Politics. New York, 1992Google Scholar
- National library: Bibliothèque Nationale, Rue du Centre, Port-au-Prince.Google Scholar