In the 1st millennium BC the wealth of the kingdom of Saba (or Sheba), in what is now Yemen and southwestern Saudi Arabia, was based on the incense and spice trade and on agriculture. From about 115 BC the Himyarite kingdom absorbed Saba and Hadhramaut (to the east) to claim control of the entire southwest Arabian Peninsula by the 4th century AD. Himyarite dominance came to an end in the 6th century as the forces of Aksum (Ethiopia) invaded in AD 525. Aksumite rule was overthrown in 575 by the Persians, who held power until the advent of Islam in 628.
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