By the end of the 15th century, the Vietnamese had conquered most of the Kingdom of Champa (now Vietnam’s central area) and by the end of the 18th century had acquired Cochin-China (now its southern area). At the end of the 18th century, France helped to establish the Emperor Gia-Long as ruler of a unified Vietnam. Cambodia had become a French protectorate in 1863 and in 1899, after the extension of French protection to Laos in 1893, the Indo Chinese Union was proclaimed.
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