Bantu-speaking mixed farmers migrated into southwest Uganda around 500 BC. In the following centuries Nilotic-speaking pastoralists entered northern Uganda. By AD 1300 the Chwezi states were established in southern Uganda. In 1500 Nilotic-speaking Luo people invaded the Chwezi states and established the kingdoms of Buganda, Bunyoro and Ankole. Northern Uganda became home to the Alur and Acholi ethnic groups. During the 17th century Bunyoro was southern Uganda’s most powerful state but from about 1700 Buganda superseded Bunyoro and a century later it dominated a large territory bordering Lake Victoria from the Victoria Nile to the Kagera River. The king (kabaka) maintained a large court and a powerful army and traded in cattle, ivory and slaves.
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