The first known inhabitants were a mix of Iberians, who spoke a non Indo-European language, and Celtic peoples, who were mainly in the north and west of the peninsula. From the 8th century BC the Phoenicians established trading colonies such as Gades (Cádiz), importing metalworking, music and literacy in the form of a semi-syllabic script. From around 215 BC the Iberian Peninsula was a battleground for the Romans and the Carthaginians. Fighting between the two powers continued until the Carthaginians were forced off the peninsula in 206 BC, after which Roman laws and customs were gradually adopted.
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