The pre-Islamic period saw the development of civilizations based on trade in frankincense and spices. The Sabaean and Himyarite kingdoms flourished from around 650 BC and 115 BC respectively, their loose federations of city states lasting until the 6th century AD. They remained for the most part independent despite trading contact with the Roman and Persian empires.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Al-Rasheed, Madawi, A History of Saudi Arabia. CUP, 2002Google Scholar
- Azzam, H., Saudi Arabia: Economic Trends, Business Environment and Investment Opportunities. London, 1993Google Scholar
- Kostiner, J., The Making of Saudi Arabia: from Chieftaincy to Monarchical State. OUP, 1994Google Scholar
- Mackey, Sandra, The Saudis: Inside the Desert Kingdom. Revised ed. W. W. Norton, New York, 2003Google Scholar
- Peterson, J. E., Historical Dictionary of Saudi Arabia. Metuchen (NJ), 1994Google Scholar
- Wright, J.W., (ed.) Business and Economic Development in Saudi Arabia: Essays with Saudi Scholars. London, 1996Google Scholar
- National statistical office: Ministry of Finance and National Economy, Department of Statistics, Riyadh.Google Scholar
- Website: http://www.saudinf.com/