By the 17th century, strong chiefdoms and warrior states, notably the Ashanti, dominated the territory. The Ashanti state was strengthened by its collaboration with the slave trade but by 1874 it had been conquered by Britain and made a colony. The hinterland became a protectorate in 1901. British rule was challenged after the Second World War by Kwame Nkrumah and the Convention People’s Party (CPP), formed in 1949. The state of Ghana came into existence on 6 March 1957 when the former Colony of the Gold Coast with the Trusteeship Territory of Togoland attained Dominion status. The country was declared a Republic within the Commonwealth on 1 July 1960 with Dr Kwame Nkrumah as the first President.
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