In 1920 Azerbaijan was proclaimed a Soviet Socialist Republic. From 1922, with Georgia and Armenia, it formed the Transcaucasian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic. Conflict with Armenia over the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh escalated in 1988, leading to violent expulsions of Armenians in Azerbaijan and Azeris in Armenia. In ‘Black January’ 1990 Soviet tanks moved in to react to rioting in Baku, and over 100 civilians were killed. War broke out between the two countries in 1992, with a ceasefire agreed in 1994. The dispute over territory remains unsettled, although negotiations in Florida in 2001 promised a peaceful solution. In 1990 it adopted a declaration of republican sovereignty and on 18 Aug. 1991 the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan declared independence. Under the presidency of Heydär Äliyev, elected in Oct. 1993, parliament ratified association with the CIS on 20 Sept. 1993. A treaty of friendship and co-operation was signed with Russia on 3 July 1997 and Äliyev was re-elected in Oct. 1998, although the administration of the election was criticized by international observers.
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