Algeria came under French control in the 1850s. French settlers developed political and economic power at the expense of the indigenous Muslim population. In Nov. 1954 the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN), representing the Muslim majority, declared open warfare against the French administration. There was extensive loss of life and property during the fighting which continued unabated until March 1962 when a ceasefire was agreed between the French government and the nationalists. Against the wishes of the French in Algeria, Gen. de Gaulle conceded Algerian independence on 3 July 1962.
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