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Russia

  • Frederick Martin
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)

Abstract

Alexander II., Emperor of Russia, born April 17 (April 29 new-style), 1818, the eldest son of Emperor Nicholas I. and of Princess Charlotte of Prussia; educated, under the supervision of his father, by General Moerder, a learned German, and the Russian poet Joukowski; entered the army, 1831; nominated colonel in the regiment of grenadiers, 1835; chancellor of the university of Helsingfors, Finland, 1837 ; travelled in Germany, 1840–41; superintendent of the military schools of the empire, 1849; appointed to a command in the Caucasian army, 1850. Succeeded to the throne, at the death of his father, February 18 (March 2), 1855; crowned at Moscow, August 26 (September 7), 1856. Married, April 16 (April 28), 1841, to

Maria, Empress of Russia, born August 8, 1824, the daughter of the late Grand-duke Ludwig II., of Hesse-Darmstadt. Offspring of the union are:—1. Grand-duke Alexander, heir-apparent, born February 26 (March 10), 1845; married, Nov. 9, 1866, to Maria Dagmar, born Nov. 26, 1847, daughter of King Christian IX. of Denmark; offspring of the union are two sons and one daughter, namely, Nicholas, born May 6 (May 18), 1868, George, born April 28 (May 10), 1871, and Xenia, born April 6 (April 18), 1875

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Statistical and other Books of Reference concerning Russia.

1. Official Publications

  1. Materials for a Statistick of the Empire of Russia. Published, under the auction of His Majesty, by the Statistical Department of the Ministry of the Interior (Russian). 8. St. Petersburg, 1863–75.Google Scholar
  2. Receuil de Données statistiques sur les Chemins de Fer en Russie au 1er septembre 1871. Publié par le comtede Sollohub. St. Pétersbourg, 1871.Google Scholar
  3. Sbornick : Military-statistical Cyclopaedia, issued under the direction of the Imp. Ministry of War (Russian). 4. St, Petersburgh, 1873.Google Scholar
  4. Memorandum on the Trade between Great Britain and Russia. By T. Michell, Attaché to H. M.’s Embassy at St. Petersburg. Presented to both Houses of Parliament. London, 1866.Google Scholar
  5. Memorandum on the Trade, Manufactures, and Customs Begislation of Russia. By Mr. T. Michell. In ‘Commercial Reports received at the Foreign Office.’ Pp. 334. 8. London, 1868.Google Scholar
  6. Report by Mr. Lumley, British Secretary of Embassy, on the Railway’s of Russia, dated August 25, 18G9; in ‘Reports of H. M.’s Secretaries of Embassy and Legation. No. I. 1870. London, 1870.Google Scholar
  7. Report by Mr. Lumley, British Secretary of Embassy, on the Trade and Manufacture of Cotton in Russia, dated January, 1865; in ‘Reports of H. M.’s Secretaries of Embassy.’ No. VIII. London, 1865.Google Scholar
  8. Report by Mr. Consul T. Michell on the Finances of the Russian Empire, dated St. Petersburg, June, 1867; in ‘Commercial Reports received at the Foreign Office.’ No. IX. 1867. London, 1867.Google Scholar
  9. Reports by Mr. T. Michell, Consul at St. Petersburg, Mr. W. Campbell, Consul at Helsingfors, and Sir. J. Grignon, Consul at Riga, on the population, Etate of agriculture, and land laws of Russia, dated December 1869Google Scholar
  10. and January 1870; in ‘Reports from II.M.’s Representatives on the Tenure of Land in the Several Countries of Europe.’ Part II. Fol. London. 1870Google Scholar
  11. Report by Mr. Horace Rurabold, British Secretary of Embassy on the Revenue and Expenditure of Russia, and the Progress made in Railway Construction, dated St. Petersburg, April 30, 1870; in ‘Reports by H. M’s Secretaries of Embassy and Legation.’ No. I. 1871. 8. London, 1871.Google Scholar
  12. Report by Mr. Francis Clare Ford, Secretary of Embassy, on the Financial and Commercial Condition of the Russian Empire, dated St. Petersburg, May 1. 1872; in ‘Reports of H.M.’s Secretaries of Embassy and Legation.” No III. 1872. 8. London, 1872.Google Scholar
  13. Report by Mr. Consul-General Mansfield, on the Trade and Commerce of Poland, during the year 1873, dated Warsaw, September 9, 1874; in ‘Reports from H.M.’s Consuls.’ No. I. 1875. 8. London, 1875.Google Scholar
  14. Report by Mr. Consul General Mansfield, on the Trade and Commerce of Poland during the year 1872, dated Warsaw, September 10, 1873; in ‘Reports from H.M.’s Consuls. No. I. 1874. 8. London, 1874.Google Scholar
  15. Report by Mr. Consul Carruthers, on the Trade of Taganrog, dated February 5, 1872; in Reports from H.M.’s Consuls.’ No. I. 1872. 8. London. 1872.Google Scholar
  16. Report by Mr. Consul Campbell, on the Trade and Population of the Grand-duchy of Finland, dated Helsingfors, March 31, 1872; in ‘Reports from H.M.’s Consuls.’ No. II 1872. 8. London, 1872.Google Scholar
  17. Report by Mr. Consul-General Abbott, on the Trade and Industry of Odessa and Southern Russia, dated Odessa, April 28, 1872; in ‘Reports from H.M.’s Consuls.’ No. III. 1872. 8. London, 1872.Google Scholar
  18. Report by Mr. Consul Zohrab on the coalfields of Ekaterisnoslaw; by Mr. Consul Cicognani on the trade of Nicolaieff; and by Mr. Consul Grignon on the trade and commerce of Riga, dated September—October 1873; in ‘Reports from H.M.’s Consuls on the manufactures, commerce, &c., of their consular districts.’ Part I. 1874. 8. London, 1874.Google Scholar
  19. Report by Mr. Consul Stevens on the trade of Nicolaieff, and on commerce and navigation in Southern Russia, dated January 12, 1874; in ‘Reports from H.M.’s Consuls on the manufactures, commerce, &c., of their consular districts.’ Part II. 1874. 8. London, 1874.Google Scholar
  20. Reports by Mr. Consul Carruthers on the trade and commerce of Taganrog, and by Mr. Consul Zohrab on the trade of Berdiansk, dated January—February 1874; in ‘Reports from H.M.’s Consuls on the manufactures, commerce, &c., of their consular districts.’ Part III. 1874. 8. London, 1874.Google Scholar
  21. Report by Mr. Consul Guignon on the commerce of Riga, dated Riga, October 13, 1874; in ‘Reports from H.M.’s Consuls.’ Part I. 1875. 8. London, 1875.Google Scholar
  22. Trade of Russia with. the United Kingdom; in ‘Annual Statement of the trade of the United Kingdom with Foreign Countries and British PossessionsGoogle Scholar
  23. for the year 1874.’ Imp. 4. London, 1875.Google Scholar

2. Non-Official Publications.

  1. Bar (K. E. von), and Hclmersen (Gr. von), Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Russischen Reichs. 25 vols. 8. St. Petersburg, 1852–69.Google Scholar
  2. Barry (Herbert), Russia in 1870. 8. London, 1871.Google Scholar
  3. Bernhardi (T. von), Geschichte Rutland’s. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1874.Google Scholar
  4. Besobrasof (W.), Etudes sur les revenus publics. 1. partie. Mémoires de Paead. des sciences de St. Pétersbourg. 4. St. Pétersbourg, 1870.Google Scholar
  5. Brasche (Otto), Beitrag zur Methode der Sterblichkeits berechnung und zur Mortalitätsstatistik Russlands. 8. Würzburg, 1870.Google Scholar
  6. Bischen (A. von), Aperçu statistique des forces productives de la Russie. 8. Paris, 1868.Google Scholar
  7. Echardt (Dr. Julius), Russland’s ländliche Zustände seit Aufhebung der Leibeigenschaft. 8. Leipzig, 1870.Google Scholar
  8. Erman (Georg Adolf), Archiv für die wissenschaftliche Kunde Russlands. 25 vols. 8. Berlin, 1841–68.Google Scholar
  9. Flerofski (N.), The Condition of the Labouring Classes in Russia. (Russian., S. St. Petersburg, 1869.Google Scholar
  10. Golovine (Ivan), Etudos et Essais : Richesse de la Russie, Économie privée, Économie hospitalière. 8. Paris, 1864.Google Scholar
  11. Haxthausen (A. von), Studien uber die innern Zustände, das Volksleben u. s. w. Russlands. 3 vols. 8. Berlin, 1847–52.Google Scholar
  12. Ignatius (K.E. T.) Statistisk Handbok för Finland. 8. Helsingfors, 1872.Google Scholar
  13. Jourdier (L.), Des forces productives, destructives, et improductives de la Russia. 8. 2nd ed., Leipzig, 1861.Google Scholar
  14. Khanikof (N. de), Études sur l’Instruction Publiquo en Russie. 1re partie, Dernières réformes de l’organisation de l’instruction publiquo. 8. Paris, 1866.Google Scholar
  15. Koppen (Dr. P. von), Statistische Reise in Russland. 8. St. Petersburg 1864.Google Scholar
  16. Martin (Henri), La Russie d’Europe. 8. Paris, 1865.Google Scholar
  17. Michell (Robert), Summary of Statisties of the Russian Empire, in ‘Journal of the Statistical Society of London.’ Vol. 35, part 3. 8. London, 1872.Google Scholar
  18. Olberg (H.), Statistisehe Tabellen des russischen Reichs. 8. Berlin, 1850.Google Scholar
  19. Oumanetz (Th.), Public Education in Russia (Russian). 8. Dresden, 1868.Google Scholar
  20. Paidy (J. N.), Description ethnographique des peuples de la Russie. 8. St. Petersbourg, 1862.Google Scholar
  21. Petzholdt (Alex.), Reise im Westlichen und Südlichen Europäischen Russland im J. 1855. 8. Leipzig, I860.Google Scholar
  22. Porochine (Viet. de), Les Ressources Matérielles de la Russie. 8. Paris, 1865.Google Scholar
  23. Iiavenstein (E. G.), The Russians on the Amur; its Discovery, Conquest, and Colonisation. 8. London, 1861.Google Scholar
  24. Röitgcr (Carl), Russische Revue. Monatsschrift für die Kunde Russlands. 3d Jahrgang. 8. St. Petersburg, 1874.Google Scholar
  25. Sarauw (Christian von) Die Russische Heeresmacht auf Grund offizieller Quellen und eigener Anschauung. 8. Leipzig, 1875.Google Scholar
  26. Sarauw (Chrn. von), Russland’s Kommerzielle Mission in Mittelasien. 8. Leipzig, 1871.Google Scholar
  27. Schnitzler (Joan Henri), L’Empiro des Tsars. 3 vols. 8. Paris and St. Petersburg, 1856–69.Google Scholar
  28. Schnitzler (Jean Henri), Les Institutions de la Russie, depuis les réformes de l’Empereur Alexandre II. 2 vols. 8. Paris, 1867.Google Scholar
  29. Schweitzer (G.), Areal-Bestimmung des Kaiserreiches Russland. 8. St. Petersburg, 1850.Google Scholar
  30. Semenow (N.), Geographical and Statistical Dictionary of the Russian Empire (Russian). 2 vols. 8. St. Petersburg, 1863–66.Google Scholar
  31. Statistische Mittheilungen aus Russland (Reprinted from the ‘St. Petersburger Kalender'). 4. Jahrgang. 8. St. Petersburg, 1871.Google Scholar
  32. Stchapof (A.), The Intelleetual Development of the Russian People, (Russian). 8. St. Petersburg, 1870.Google Scholar
  33. Ίcgoborski (L. de), Etudes sur les Forces Productives do la Russie. 3 vols. 8. Paris, 1852.Google Scholar
  34. Tunner (Ritter P. von), Russland’s Montan-Industrie, insbesondere dessen. Eisenweseu. 8. Leipzig, 1871.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1876

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederick Martin

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